Переговоры Дж. Буша и М. С. Горбачева на Мальте в 1989 г. (по материалам Библиотеки Дж. Буша)

Dmitry Mikhailovich Kalinin

Аннотация


Статья посвящена анализу переговоров Дж. Буша и М. С. Горбачева на Мальте на основании документов из архива Библиотеки Дж. Буша. Мальтийский саммит 2–3 декабря 1989 г. стал рубежным фактом в процессе окончания Холодной вой-ны, что было отражено как в воспоминаниях участников, так и в журналистских заметках. Действительно, подобный переговорный процесс был возможен только в относительно мирных условиях. Однако анализ встречи на Мальте не находится на передовой исторической науки, а изданные работы основаны преимущественно на источниках личного происхождения. Для Администрации Дж. Буша принципиальным вопросом было определение характера изменений в Советском Союзе. Саммит стал попыткой найти подтверждение реального внешнеполитического поворота при М. С. Горбачеве, поэтому подготовка к нему была весьма кропотливой. На встрече не было определенной повестки, однако Дж. Буш выступал с конкретными предложениями как по вопросам разоружения, так и по проблемам региональной политики. М. С. Горбачев больше использовал миротворческую риторику и апеллировал к новому статусу советско-американских отношений. Несмотря на то, что на встрече был задан дружественный тон общения, по некоторым вопросам стороны к консенсусу прийти не смогли. На саммите не было подписано никаких соглашений, поэтому значение его остается во многом психологическим. Администрация Дж. Буша удостоверилась в реальности изменений советской внешней политики и возможности получать уступки от СССР по многим вопросам, в том числе и по проблеме объединения Германии.

Ключевые слова


холодная война; американо-советские отношения; внешняя политика Дж. Буша; встреча на Мальте; «перестройка»; объединение Германии; проблемы контроля вооружений.

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Без имени

Литература


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15826/izv2.2016.18.2.032

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