Крымские древности глазами Эдварда-Даньела Кларка:

Nikita Igorevich Khrapunov

Аннотация


В статье анализируется травелог британца Эдварда-Даньела Кларка, представляющий собой одно из первых энциклопедических описаний Крымского полуострова, где автор побывал в 1800 г. Записки Кларка оказались чрезвычайно популярны у современников и нынешних исследователей, однако вопрос об авторской стратегии и ее влиянии на объективность текста пока не ставился. В сочинении Кларка можно выявить элементы путевого дневника, научного исследования и политического памфлета. В статье показаны приемы, с помощью которых Кларк превращает описание археологических памятников в «идеологическое оружие». Доказывая «нецивилизованность» России и необходимость ее изгнания из Крыма, Кларк использовал в качестве оригинального аргумента археологию. По его мнению, русским свойственно безжалостное и бессмысленное разрушение археологических памятников античной и средневековой эпохи. В XVIII в. античность постепенно входила в моду в Западной Европе, а Грецию начали воспринимать как колыбель европейской цивилизации, поэтому обвинение русских в уничтожении античных построек и вещей было явным доказательством варварства. Избирательность подхода Кларка заключалась в том, что разрушение древностей турками, татарами или своими соотечественниками он интерпретировал иначе. Свидетельства уничтожения древних сооружений в Крыму в российскую эпоху действительно существуют, но Кларк был первым, кто осмыслил их в терминах идеологии. Его записки оказали колоссальное влияние на последующую западную историографию, склонную относиться к ним некритически.

Ключевые слова


записки путешественников XVIII–XIX вв.; история науки; археология Крыма; Крым; воображаемая география; Эдвард-Даньел Кларк.

Полный текст:

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Литература


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