От критики «метанарративов» к новым обобщениям: современные подходы к изучению всемирной истории

Andrey Alexandrovich Iserov

Аннотация


Статья посвящена новому осмыслению всемирной истории, больших процессов и «большой длительности», которое уже получило характеристику «глобального» («транснационального») поворота. Предпринята попытка ответить на вопросы, в чем причины этого «поворота», как он понимается сегодня историками и какие ему даются определения, каковы реальные итоги вновь родившегося интереса к макропроцессам, наконец, как сегодня выглядит задача сочетания микро- и макромасштабов в историческом исследовании. Определено место «глобального» («транснационального») «поворота» в современной историографической ситуации с ее парадоксальным сочетанием запроса на «децентрализацию» (в первую очередь, на преодоление европоцентризма) и одновременно «англо-американизации» знания. Очевидны успехи «поворота», связанные как с новым критическим вниманием к устоявшимся стереотипным обобщениям (здесь ценны достижения второй половины 1970–2000-х гг. в борьбе с «метанарративами»), так и с увеличением объема доступных историкам источников, в том числе массовых (digital humanities). Интерес, с одной стороны, к истории, пересекающей и разрывающей привычные национальные, региональные, этно-конфессиональные границы (расширение пространственного поля), а с другой стороны, к «большой длительности» (расширение временного поля), не означает отказа от микроисторических методов, но предъявляет к ним важное требование: казус должен выражать важную большую тенденцию. Ясны также неудачи «поворота»: гонка за числом публикаций и стремление соответствовать новейшим историографическим тенденциям могут привести к легковесности изложения и слабой фундированности выводов.

Ключевые слова


всеобщая история; всемирная история; «глобальный поворот»; транснациональная история; «связанная» история; «перекрестная» история; микроистория; макроистория; европоцентризм; социология знания.

Полный текст:

Без имени (English)

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15826/izv2.2016.18.4.075

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