От истории Октября к истории Русской революции: сравнительный анализ методологических подходов к оценке событий 1917 г

Ludmila Nikolaevna Mazur

Аннотация


Столетний юбилей Революции 1917 г., перевернувшей историческую судьбу России, заставляет подвести определенные итоги ее изучения. В современной историо­графии представлены десятки авторских позиций, существенно отличающихся друг от друга. В зону дискуссии попадают базовые характеристики революции — ее хронологические рамки, характер, причины и результаты, движущие силы. Дискутируется и само понятие революции. Вместе с тем существуют дидактические потребности, связанные с преподаванием, которые предполагают необходимость согласования различных оценок рассматриваемого события.

В статье анализируются теоретические взгляды на Революцию 1917 г., которые опираются на различные методологические подходы, в том числе марксистский, цивилизационный, модернизационный, институциональный, синергетический, компаративный и проектный. В качестве историографических источников используются преимущественно обобщающие труды, ориентированные на типологический анализ событий революции.

При анализе историографических интерпретаций дискуссионных вопросов Революции 1917 г. автор предлагает использовать метод «согласования мнений экспертов», основанный на выявлении объективно возникающих точек пересечения мнений. Возможность такого согласования опирается на использование сходных познавательных процедур, основанных на дедуктивной или индуктивной логике суждений, а также выявление наиболее распространенных мнений.

Ключевые слова


Октябрьский переворот; Революция 1917 г.; Русская революция; хронологические рамки; характер; движущие силы; причины и цели революции.

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Литература


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15826/izv2.2017.19.3.039

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