Опыт анализа причин смерти населения Барнаула во второй половине XIX — начале XX в. (по материалам метрических книг)

Dmitry Evgenievich Sarafanov

Аннотация


В статье проведен анализ распределения причин смерти населения Барнаула во второй половине XIX — начале XX в. Оценен вклад различных причин в формирование ситуации со смертностью у взрослого населения (16–59 лет). На основе БД «Население Барнаула второй половины XVIII — начала XX вв. по материалам метрических книг» была проанализирована выборка смертей, зарегистрированных в Покровском приходе за 1869–1911 гг. Около 60 % случаев в структуре мужской летальности (16–59 лет) являлись последствием инфекционных и кишечных заболеваний. Смерти от туберкулеза, учитываемые в этой группе, составляли 35 %. У женщин, за счет меньших смертельных исходов от туберкулеза (25,5 %), показатели по инфекционным болезням ниже. Процент смертей от кишечных инфекций достаточно высок: у женщин составил 10,9 %, у мужчин — 7,6 %. Удельный вес смертей от вирусных инфекций (оспа, корь) и бактериальных болезней (дифтерия, скарлатина) незначителен вне зависимости от гендерной принадлежности. Внешние причины смерти «забирали» взрослых мужчин (11,7 %) в 4 раза чаще, чем женщин (2,9 %). Показатели летальности от болезней органов дыхания у женщин составляли 10,2 %. От болезней этой группы они умирали в 1,5 раза чаще, чем мужчины (6,7 %). Значительное количество женщин репродуктивного возраста умирало в ходе осложнений беременности и родов (7,5 %). Большое количество смертей происходило от болезней экзогенного характера, связанных с воздействием внешней среды. Однако болезни эндогенного характера также имели значение (12,5 % случаев — у мужчин, 16,1 % — у женщин).


Ключевые слова


историческая демография; компьютерные технологии в исторических исследованиях; базы данных; метрические книги; смертность; причины смерти.

Полный текст:

Без имени

Литература


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15826/izv2.2018.20.4.065

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