Gendarmes and the Modernization of Local Rule in Russia (Research Experience and Prospects)

Alsu Biktasheva

Abstract


The article explores the historiography of the secret police in the Russian Empire. Revealing the approaches of historians to this subject, the methods and manner of their work with historical sources, the author demonstrates the negative consequences that were a result of political topicality and the concealing of information about the state. A review of historiographic heritage enables the author to cleanse the perception of the topic from a number of “quasi-evident facts” created at various times and under different circumstances. Additionally, she pays attention to the existence of a vast number of documents of the police department which can still be found in state archives. Special attention needs to be paid to those ones that contain the reflections of gendarme officers on professional ethics and duties. The author reveals documental evidence of conflicts of interest between the local administration and the police officers controlling its activity. The approach used by the author bears a non-conventional character which consists in the study of creation of these documents and their functions in the police department. Preliminary results enable the author to claim that these certificates can provide information not only about the sphere of impact and peculiarities of the secret police, but also about the ways of implementation of the political concept of a regular, well-organized state in 19th century-Russia and the ways of self-improvement of government.


Keywords


Russian empire; Third Section of H. I. M. Own Chancery; Corps of Gendarmes; management modernization.

References


Abakumov, O. Yu. (2008). «…Chtob nravstvennaya zaraza ne pronikla v nashi predely’»: Iz istorii bor’by’ III otdeleniya s evropejskim vliyaniem v Rossii (1830-e – nachalo 1860-h gg.) [Preventing the Withering of Morals from Reaching Our Lands: On the History of the Third Section’s Fight with European Influence in Russia (1830s – Early 1869s)]. 212 p. Saratov.

Bibikov, G. N. (2009). A. H. Benkendorf i politika imperatora Nikolaya I [A. H. Benckendorff and the Policy of Emperor Nicholas I]. 424 p. Moscow.

Biktasheva, A. N. (2012) Antropologiya vlasti: kazanskie gubernatory’ pervoj poloviny’ XIX veka [The Anthropology of Power: Kazan Governors of the 1st Half of the 19th Century] (pp. 373–413). Moscow.

Gosudarstvenny'j arhiv Rossijskoj Federacii [State Archive of the Russian Federation]. F. 109; F. 110.

Got'e, Yu. V. (1922). Proishozhdenie sobstvennoj e. i. v. kancelyarii [The Establishment of H. I. M. Own Chancery]. In Sbornik statej po russkoj istorii, posvyashhenny’h S. F. Platonovu (pp. 346–355). Petrograd.

Derevnina, T. G. (1973). III otdelenie i ego mesto v sisteme gosudarstvennogo stroya absolyutnoj monarhii v Rossii [The Third Section and Its Role in the System of Absolute Monarchy in Russia: PhD Thesis]. 177 p. Moscow.

Eroshkin, N. P. (1981). Krepostnoe samoderzhavie i ego politicheskie instituty’. Pervaya polovina XIX veka [Serfdom Autocracy and Its Political Institutions: 1st Half of the 19th Century]. 252 p. Moscow.

Eroshkin, N. P. (1968). Ocherki istorii gosudarstvenny′h uchrezhdenij dorevolyucionnoj Rossii [Essays on the History of Public Institutions of Pre-Revolutionary Russia]. 368 p. Moscow.

Ivanczov, M. N. (2009). Deyateli politicheskogo sy’ska Rossii v otechestvennoj istoriografii [Political Investigators of Russia in National Historiography], Vestnik RUDN. Seriya «Istoriya Rossii», 6, pp. 74–80.

Makarova, N. V. (2012). Zhizn’ rossijskih soslovij v e’pohu pravleniya Nikolaya I (po materialam III Otdeleniya) [The Life of Russian Social Classes during the Reign of Nicholas I (with Reference to the Third Section)]. 393 p. Moscow.

Mustonen, P. (1998). Sobstvennaya Ego Imperatorskogo Velichestva kancelyariya v mehanizme vlastvovaniya instituta samoderzhca 1812–1858 gg.: K tipologii osnov imperskogo upravleniya [His Imperial Majesty’s Own Chancery in the Mechanism of the Autocrat’s Ruling Institution in 1812–1858: On the Typology of Imperial Rule Foundations]. 357 p. Helsinki, Aleksanderi inst.

Chukarev, A. G. (2003). Tajnaya policiya Nikolaya I (1826–1855) [The Secret Police of Nicholas I (1826–1855)] (in 2 vols.).Yaroslavl.

E′kshtut, S. A. (1998). Na sluzhbe rossijskomu Leviafanu. Istoricheskie opy′ty′ [Serving the Russian Leviathan. Historical Experiences]. 328 p. Moscow.

Emsley, C. (1999). Gendarmes and the State in Nineteenth-Century Europe. Oxford.

LeDonne, J. P. (1991). Absolutism and ruling class: the formation of the Russian political order, 1700–1825. New York, Oxford University Press.

Lincoln, W. B. (1978). Nicolas I. Emperor and Autocrat of All Russians. London.

Monas, S. (1961). The Third Section. Police and Society in Russia under Nicholas I. Harvard.

Möllers, M. & Ooyen, R. van. (Eds.) (2013). Polizeiwissenschaft in Deutschland [Polizeiwissenschaft in Germany]. In Polizeiwissenschaft 1 (pp. 111–146). Frankfurt.

Olejnikov, D. I. (2009). Benkendorf [Benckendorff]. 428 p. Moscow.

Olejnikov, D. I. (2012). Nikolaj I [Nicholas I]. 339 p. Moscow.

Orzhehovskij, I. V. (1982). Samoderzhavie protiv revolyucionnoj Rossii (1826–1880 gg.) [Autocracy against Revolutionary Russia (1826–1880)]. 207 p. Moscow.

Ovchenko, Yu. F. (2010). Moskovskaya ohranka narubezhe vekov, 1880–1904 gg. [Moscow Guard Department at the Turn of the 20th Century, 1880–1904]. 232 p. Moscow.

Policejskij poryadok i situativnaya solidarnost′: dinamika vzaimodejstviya i transformacij: Proekt v ramkah Programmy′ fundamental′ny′h issledovanij NIU VShE′ v 2013 g. [Police Order an the Situation of Solidarity: The Dynamics of Interaction and Transformation: A Project within the Programme of Fundamental Studies of National Research University, Higher School of Economics in 2013]. Avialable at: http://www.hse.ru/org/projects/79579505.

Polnoe sobranie zakonov Rossijskoj imperii. Sobranie 2 [The Complete Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire. Collection 2]. (1830–1884). Saint Petersburg.

Poroh, V. I. & Roslyakova, O. B. (2010). III Otdelenie pri Nikolae I [The Section during Nicholas I’s Reign]. 238 p. Saratov.

Racz, D. V. (1990). «Otriczatel′no – dobry′j chelovek» [A Negatively Kind Man]. In Fakel. Istoriko-revolyucionny′j al′manah (pp. 42–57). Moscow.

Romanov, V.V. (2007). Politicheskaya policiya Rossijskoj imperii 1826–1860 gg.: osnovny′e tendencii i razvitie [The Political Police of the Russian Empire between 1826 and 1860: Main Tendencies and Development]. 559 p. Ulyanovsk.

Romanov, V. V. (2008). Podrazdeleniya politicheskoj policii v Povolzhskih guberniyah v 1826–1860 gg.: formy′ i osnovny′e napravleniya deyatel′nosti [Political Police Units in Volga Region Governorates between 1826 and 1860: Forms and Main Directions of Activity ]. 270 p. Ulyanovsk.

Squire, P. S. (1968). The Third Department. The establishment and practices of the political police in the Russia of Nicholas I. Cambridge.

Tarasov, B. N. (2007). Nikolaj Pervy′j – ry′czar′ samoderzhaviya [Nicholas the First –The Knight of Autocracy]. 513 p. Moscow.

Troczkij, I. M. (1990). Tret′e otdelenie pri Nikolae I [The Third Section under Nicholas I]. 318 p. Leningrad.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15826/qr.2015.2.100

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN 2311-911X (Print)
ISSN 2310-757X (Online)

 

BASE Search eLibrary WorldCat