The Caucasus in the Late 19th – Early 20th Centuries: Problems of Governance and Modernization on the Southern Outskirts of the Russian Empire

Amiran Urushadze

Abstract


The study is based both on previously published and unpublished archival documents. The article refers to a variety of materials from federal, regional and college archives. The article is devoted to problems of administration and education development on the southern outskirts of the Russian Empire in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. That was a time of systemic crisis in the Caucasus. The revolution of 1905–1907 and the intensification of insurgent groups’ activity created a situation where the Russian Empire risked losing the Caucasus. Many deficiencies in the work of administrative institutions and the decrease in the pace of modernization aggravated the situation. It was already in the late 19th century that the representatives of the regional administration pointed to the crisis in the Caucasus. The Russian Empire faced problems of war in the Caucasus again, and to overcome the crisis a Caucasian Viceroyalty was established. The Caucasian Viceroy received a number of administrative privileges. In this regard, the Caucasian Viceroyalty was an attempt to escape from the Empire for the sake of the Imperial interests. The ruling elite of in the capital of the Empire was against the return to the vicegerency which was most severely criticized by Chairman of the Committee and the Council of Ministers S. Yu. Witte, who almost succeeded in achieving the abolition of vicegerency in December, 1905. Primarily, the Russian administration needed to find effective ways of combating units of abreks (outlaws expelled by their tribes). The most dangerous enemy of the Russian administration in the region was the legendary abrek Zelimkhan Gushmazukaev. His popularity and prosperity undermined the authority of the official rulers. Soon Caucasian Viceroy I. I. Vorontsov-Dashkov proved it was impossible to resist the instability by means of punitive methods alone. The Viceroy proposed a reform programme to alleviate the  situation. An important part of the reforms was the development of education. However, the lack of funds did not allow for its systematic implementation. Thus, the problem of complex modernization of the Caucasus did not receive a full solution. The Caucasus remained a problematic region of the Russian Empire. Overall, it may be stated that the Romanovs’ policy in the Caucasus was one of half accomplished measures and half passed ways.


Keywords


Caucasus; Caucasian Viceroyalty; I. I. Vorontsov-Dashkov; modernization; state institutions.

References


Arapov, D. Yu. (Comp.). (2006). Imperatorskaya Rossiya i musul′manskij mir (konecz XVIII – nachalo XX v.): Sbornik materialov [Imperial Russia and the Muslim World (Late 18th – Early 20th Century)]. 480 p. Moscow, Natalis.

Arhiv Kabardino-Balkarskogo instituta gumanitarny′h issledovanij [The Archive of Kabardino-Balkar Institute of Humanitarian Studies]. F. 1. Op. 3. D. 1.

Arhiv knyazya Voronczova [Archives of Prince Vorontsov]. (1892). Bk. 38. 543 p. Moscow, Universitetskaya tipografiya.

Avalov, Z. D. (1910). Gruziny′ [Georgians]. In Kastelyanskij, A. I. (Ed.). Formy′ nacional′nogo dvizheniya v sovremenny′h gosudarstvah [Forms of the national movement in modern states] (pp. 469–493). Saint Petersburg, Obshhestvennaya pol′za.

Bobrovnikov, V.O. (2002). Musul′mane Severnogo Kavkaza: oby′chaj, pravo, nasilie: Ocherki po istorii i e′tnografii prava Nagornogo Dagestana [Muslims of the North Caucasus: Customs, Law, Violence. Essays on the History and Ethnography of Law of Upland Dagestan]. 368 p. Moscow, Vostochnaya literatura.

Central′ny′j gosudarstvenny′j arhiv Kabardino-Balkarskoj Respubliki [Central State Archive of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic]. F. 6. Op. 1. D. 756.

Fedotov, G. P. (1993). Sud′ba imperij [The Fate of Empires]. In Rossiya mezhdu Evropoj i Aziej: evrazijskij soblazn (pp. 328–346). Moscow, Nauka.

Florinskij, M. F. (2010). Central′naya vlast′ i kavkazskaya administraciya v sisteme upravleniya Rossijskoj imperiej v 1905–1914 gg. [The Central Authority and the Caucasian Administration in the System of Governance of the Russian Empire between 1905 and 1914]. In Dvornichenko, A. Yu. (Ed.). Centr i regiony′ v istorii Rossii: Problemy′ e′konomicheskogo, politicheskogo i sociokul′turnogo vzaimodejstviya: Sbornik nauchny′h statej (pp. 380–411). Saint Petersburg, SPbGU.

Gosudarstvenny′j arhiv Rossijskoj Federacii [State Archive of the Russian Federation]. F. 678. Op. 1. D. 687.

Hutarev-Garnishevskij, V. (2014). Rossijskie speczsluzhby′, politicheskij islamizm I separatizm na Severnom Kavkaze v nachale XX i XXI vekov. Istoricheskaya komparativistika. Obshhestvenno-politicheskij fon [Russian Secret Services, Political Islamism and Separatism in the North Caucasus in the Early 20th and 21st Centuries. Comparative Historical, Social and Political Background]. In Bol′shoj Kavkaz dvadczat′ let spustya: resursy′ i strategii politiki i identichnosti (pp. 160–182). Moscow, NLO.

Ismail-Zade, D. I. (2005). Graf I. I. Voronczov-Dashkov. Namestnik Kavkazskij [Count I. I. Vorontsov-Dashkov. Caucasian Viceroy]. 511 p. Moscow, Centrpoligraf.

Kabuzan, V. M. (1996). Naselenie Severnogo Kavkaza v XIX–XX vekah. Etnostatisticheskoe issledovanie [The Population of the Northern Caucasus Region between the 19th and the 20th Centuries: an Ethnostatistical Study]. 228 p. Saint Petersburg, Russko-Baltijskij informacionny′j centr BLICZ.

Kappeler, A. (2005). Obrazovanie nacij i nacional′nye dvizheniya v Rossijskoj imperii [The Formation of Nations and National Movements in the Russian Empire]. In Vert, P., Kaby′tov, P. S. & Miller, A. I. (Comps.). Rossijskaya imperiya v zarubezhnoj istoriografii. Raboty′ poslednih let: antologiya (pp. 395–435). Moscow, Novoe izdatel′stvo.

Kavkaz i Rossijskaya imperiya: proekty′, idei, illyuzii i real′nost′. Nachalo XIX – nachalo XX vv. [The Caucasus and the Russian Empire: Projects, Ideas, Illusion and Reality. Early 19th – Early 20th Centuries]. (2005). 720 p. Saint Petersburg, Zvezda.

Lazarevskij, N. I. (Ed.). (2010). Zakonodatel′nye akty′ perehodnogo vremeni. 1904–1908 gg.: sbornik zakonov, manifestov, ukazov Pravitel′stvuyushhemu senatu, reskriptov i polozhenij Komiteta ministrov, otnosyashhihsya k preobrazovaniyu gosudarstvennogo stroya Rossii [Legislative Acts of the Transitional Period. 1904–1908: A Collection of Laws, Manifests, Orders]. 888 p. Moscow, Gosudarstvennaya publichnaya istoricheskaya biblioteka Rossii.

Pervaya vseobshhaya perepis′ naseleniya Rossijskoj imperii 1897 g. [The first General Census of the Russian Empire in 1897]. Avialable at: http://demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/rus_lan_97.php?reg=3 (accessed: 11.01.2015).

Prasolov, D. N. (2012). Pravovoj plyuralizm v administrativnoj praktike poreformennoj kabardinskoj derevni [Legal Pluralism in the Administrative Practice of the Post-Reform Kabardian Village]. In Istoricheskij vestnik (Iss. 10, Pt. 2, pp. 28–45). Nalchik, KBIGI.

Pravilova, E. A. (2004). Byudzhetno-finansovaya politika Rossii v Zakavkaz′e (1801–1905 gg.) [Russian Fiscal Policy in the Caucasus (1801–1905)]. In Anglijskaya naberezhnaya,4: Sbornik Sankt-Peterburgskogo nauchnogo obshhestva istorikov i arhivistov (Iss. 4, pp. 137–162). Saint Petersburg, Liki Rossii.

Vajnahi i imperskaya vlast′: problema Chechni i Ingushetii vo vnutrennej politike Rossii i SSSR (nachalo XIX – seredina XX v.) [Vainakhs and Imperial Power: the Problem of Chechnya and Ingushetia in the Internal Politics of Russia and the USSR (Early 19th – Mid-20th Century)] (2011). 1094 p. Moscow, Rossijskaya politicheskaya e′nciklopediya.

Volhonskij, M. A. & Muhanov, V. M. (2009). Rossiya na Kavkaze. Pyat′ vekov istorii: nauchno-publicisticheskie ocherki [Russia in the Caucasus. Five Centuries of History: Academic and Journalistic Essays]. 488 p. Moscow, Ob′′edinennaya redakciya MVD Rossii.

Vsepoddannejshij otchet za vosem′ let upravleniya Kavkazom grafa I. I. Voronczova-Dashkova [Report for Eight-Year Governance of Caucasus Count I. I. Vorontsov-Dashkov]. (1913). 52 p. Saint Petersburg.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15826/qr.2015.2.101

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN 2311-911X (Print)
ISSN 2310-757X (Online)

 

BASE Search eLibrary WorldCat