Переводчики XVIII в. и становление историографии как науки в России

Wim Coudenys

Аннотация


Одним из главных аспектов модернизации России в XVIII в. было создание академической науки. Европейский исследовательский опыт, сложившиеся научные школы были конструктивно восприняты в нарождающейся российской науке. Важным механизмом трансляции знаний и методов исследования был перевод. Однако перевод не ограничился простым «переложением» научных работ на русский язык, но играл решающую роль как в развитии самой науки в России, так и в обмене научными знаниями и опытом с Европой («циркуляция знаний»). Среди наук, которые особенно активно обращались к переводческой деятельности, оказалась историография. В статье подробно рассматриваются динамика переводческой деятельности и ее соотношение с потребностями исторической науки. На основании статистических данных, почерпнутых из «Словаря русских писателей XVIII в.», а также материалов «Каталога личных архивных фондов отечественных историков XVIII в. и первой половины XIX в.», автор делает интересные заключения о процессе взаимоотношений переводчиков и историков, иногда представленных одним лицом. В статье оценивается роль перевода в развитии российской исторической науки от цели распространения политической пропаганды при Петре I через задачу раскрытия исторических источников (в середине XVIII в.) до становления историографии как науки, опирающейся на источники, но в то же время соответствующей правилам нарратива (риторики). Сыграв свою конструктивную роль в формировании академической истории, в начале XIX в. перевод как историографический прием и метод отодвинулся на задний план. Но осталась глубокая традиция обращения к международному опыту, и в последующие времена российская историография многократно обогащалась переводами исторических штудий. В этом номере печатается первая часть статьи.


Ключевые слова


российская историография; Петр Первый; переводческая деятельность; история XVIII в.

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Литература


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15826/qr.2016.1.152

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