‘Sun, Air, and Homes for All’? Soviet Variations on European Experiences of Mass Housing Construction during the First Five-Year Plans

Eugenia Konysheva

Abstract


The article is focused on a little-studied aspect of Soviet urban planning – the transformations of foreign experience in the sphere of housing construction during the early Five-Year Plans. The aim is to analyze what the content of such experience was and how it was transformed under the Soviet circumstances. First of all, the article considers the experience of the mass housing construction in Weimar Germany, which in the late 1920s – early 1930s was regarded as a benchmark for the Soviet practice. Attention is paid to the organization of the design and construction of mass housing, financial sources, the planning principles and their social, economic, hygienic and aesthetic grounds. The author examines ways of implementation of “healthy” mass housing, based on such components as light, air, sunshine, hygiene and greenery. In the second part of this article the attention is focused on the specifics of the order system, funding and organization of housing construction in the USSR during the period of industrialization. The attempt of introduction of the European experience is considered through the example of residential housing in “socialist cities” of Magnitogorsk, Novokuznetsk, and Orsk, which were designed by E. May, M. Stam, W. Schwagenscheidt, W. Hebebrandt and other foreign architects invited to the Soviet Union. The author identifies direct origins of certain design decisions in the previous practice of European architects and compares the design intent and the result. It is shown that under the circumstances of different housing policy and accentuation of collectivized housing, European architects sought to preserve the functionality of planning projects and sanitation/hygienic priorities, as well as tried to apply methodology of flexible design – taking into account the perspective transformation of dwellings. Through the prism of the activity of foreign architects in the USSR the author compares Soviet and European concepts of mass housing. Primarily, it is noted that the Soviet practice of mass housing design was subdued to “coefficient of efficiency”, which dominated over concepts of functionality and comfort, demonstrating the pivotal difference in the understanding of mass economic housing in the USSR and Weimar Germany.


Keywords


mass house construction; Socialist Cities; early Five-Year Plans; European architects in the USSR; Weimar Germany

References


Abt, J. & Ruhe, A. (2008). Das Neue Frankfurt : Der soziale Wohnungsbau im Frankfurt am Main und sein Architekt Ernst May. 176 S. Weimar und Rostock, Edition M.

Arkhiv MBUK MZ “Kuznetskaya krepost” (Novokuznetsk) [Archive of the MBCO YC ‘Kuznetsk Fortress’]. Stock 2. List 2. Dossier 5.

Becker, F. & Reinhardt-Becker, E. (Hrsg.). (2006). Mythos USA: „Amerikanisierung“ in Deutschland seit 1900. 256 p. Frankfurt a. M., New York, Campus.

Blokhin, P. (1937). Tipovye proekty Gorstroyproekta Narkomtyazhproma [Typical

Projects of the State City Development Project of the People’s Commissariat of Heavy Industry]. In Arkhitektura SSSR, 11, pp. 15–24.

Bragin, E. (1929). Zhilishchnoe stroitel′stvo v SSSR [Residential Development in the USSR]. In Semashko, N. A. (Ed.). Bol′shaya meditsinskaya entsiklopediya. Vol. 10, pp. 324–325. Moscow, Sovetskaya entsiklopediya.

Bunin, A. V. & Savarenskaya T. F. (1979). Istoriya gradostroitel′nogo iskusstva : v 2 kn. [A History of the Art of City Development: 2 Vols.]. Book 2. 496 p. Moscow, Stroyizdat. URL: http://townevolution.ru/books/item/f00/s00/z0000016/index.shtml (mode of access: 17.03.2016)

Chernekhovsky, E. (1927). Zhilishchnoe stroitel′stvo v Germanii [Residential Development in Germany]. In Kommunal′noe delo, 12, pp. 145–151.

Frankfurter Typengrundrisse (1930). In Das Neue Frankfurt, H. 2/3, S. 52–55.

Gosudarstvennyy arkhiv Rossiyskoy Federatsii [State Archive of the Russian

Federation]. Stock A-314. List 1. Dossier 76674; Stock 7544. List 1. Dossier 502; Stock 4544. List 1. Dossier 425.

Grechukho, V. F. (1932) Vnimanie arkhitekture novykh gorodov [A Focus on the

Architecture of New Cities]. In Stroitel′stvo Moskvy, 8/9, pp. 34–36.

Kazarinova, V. I. & Pavlichenkov, V. I. (1961). 248 p. Magnitogorsk [Magnitogorsk]. Moscow, Stroyizdat.

Klotz, H. (Hrsg.). (1986). Ernst May und das Neue Frankfurt 1925–1930. 160 S.

Berlin, Ernst und Sohn.

Konysheva, E. V. (2015). “Za rubezhom”: osveshchenie zapadnogo opyta v sovetskoy professional′noy presse 1920-kh – 1930-kh gg. [“Abroad”: A Report of Western Experience in the Soviet Professional Press of the 1920s – 1930s]. In Academia: arkhitektura i stroitel′stvo, № 4, (pp. 9–16).

Krämer, St. (2013). Deutsche Unternehmer und ihre Arbeiterkolonien im 19. Und frühen 20. Jahrhundert. In Schriftenreihe der Winckelmann Akademie für Kunstgeschichte

München. Textbeitrag Nr. 4, November. URL: http://www.kunstgeschichte-ejournal.net/archiv/2010/2647/ (mode of access: 17.03.2016).

Markovnikov, N. V. (1928). Ekonomichesky analiz tipovykh kvartirnykh yacheek

gorodskogo mnogoetazhnogo doma [An Economic Analysis of Typical Apartments of a City Apartment Block]. In Stroitel′naya promyshlennost′, 4, pp. 293–295.

May, E. (1931). Der Bau neuer Städte in der UdSSR. In Das Neue Frankfurt, H. 7, S. 117–135.

Meerovich, M. G. (2008). Nakazanie zhilishchem: zhilishchnaya politika v SSSR kak sredstvo upravleniya lyud′mi : 1917–1937 [Punishment by Accommodation: Residential Policy in the USSR as a Means of Governing People: 1917 – 1937]. 304 p. Moscow, ROSSPEN.

Meerovich, M. G. (2010). Tipologiya massovogo zhilishcha sotsgorodov-novostroek 1920–1930-kh gg. [A Typology of Mass Accommodation Places of Social Newly Built Cities of the 1920s – 1930s]. In Arkhitekton : Izvestiya vuzov, 31. URL: http://archvuz.ru/2010_3/6 (mode of access 17.03.2016).

Mengin, C. (2011). 1929: welcher standardgrundriss? und für welche soziale Klasse? In Neues Wohnen 1929/2009. Frankfurt und der 2. Congres International d′Architecture Moderne (S. 68–79). Berlin, Jovis.

Mostakov, A. (1931). Na puti k deshevomu i kul′turnomu zhil′yu [On the Way to Cheap and Cultural Accommodation]. In Stroitel′stvo Moskvy, 4, pp. 27–30.

Pistorius, E. (2015). Die Generalplanentwürfe der Gruppe Ernst May für Magnitogorsk und die Pläne für das erste und das zweite Quartal (1930–1933). In Problemy Rossiyskoy istorii, Iss. 13, pp. 248–266. Magnitogorsk, Magnitogorsky dom pechati.

Proekty rabochikh zhilishch [Projects of Workers’ Dwellings]. (1929). 270 p. Moscow,Tsekombank.

Schulz, G. (1993). Perspektiven europäischer Wohnungspolitik 1918 bis 1960.

In Wohnungspolitik im Sozialstaat, Deutsche und europäische Lösungen 1918–1960 (S. 11–45). Düsseldorf, Droste.

Schulz, G. (1997). Wohnungspolitik in Deutschland und England 1900–1939,

Generelle Linien und ausgewählte Beispiele. In Zimmermann, C. (Hrsg.) Europäische Wohnungspolitik in vergleichender Perspektive 1900–1939 (S. 153–165). Stuttgart, Fraunhofer IRB Verlag.

Shmidt, Kh. (1936). Obraztsy zhilykh kvartir na Zapade [Samples of Apartments in the West]. In Arkhitektura SSSR, 9, pp. 15–21.

Sysin, A. (1929). Zhilishche [Accommodation]. In Semashko, N. A. (Ed.). Bol′shaya meditsinskaya entsiklopediya : v 35 t. Vol. 10, pp. 324–325. Moscow, Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya.

Zhilishchnoe stroitel′stvo v 1935 g. [Residential Development]. (1936). 51 p. Moscow, Gosplan.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15826/qr.2016.3.174

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN 2311-911X (Print)
ISSN 2310-757X (Online)

 

BASE Search eLibrary WorldCat