Kholopstvo (Slavery) in 17th-century Russia: An Institution That Did not Result in a Caste

Vladimir Arakcheev

Abstract


The article deals with the history of slaves in Russia in the 17th century: it traces the evolution of the legal status of this group from the Time of Troubles to the reforms of Peter I. The bondage book of Veliky Ustyug (1619–20) provides new data on Russian slavery. The institution of slavery originally drew from all social strata, including nobles and knights; however, the enslavement of these individuals was prohibited in the 1640s. From 1641 onwards, it was forbidden to turn peasants and townspeople into slaves. The law sharply separated Zhiletskie ludi, whom some historians consider a variety of slaves, from serfs: they thus constituted a particular social group. Before the 1630s, when the ownership of slaves became a noble monopoly, members of all social strata owned slaves. This is demonstrated by the Ustyug bondage book. Slaves formed an extremely diffuse social group: therefore, R. Hellie’s definition of Muscovite slaves as a caste is erroneous. After 1649, the number of zadvornye ludi grew rapidly. This group included both slaves and persons of uncertain legal status: in reality, their position was akin to that of the peasantry. Thus, the road to the abolition of slavery was paved by processes of social stratification in Russia.


Keywords


17th century Russian history; social class; peasantry; social group; kholopstvo

References


Arakcheev, V. A. (2007) Dvorovye i zadvornye ludi: k issledovaniju terminologii perepisnyh knig 1640–1670-h gg. [“Dvorovye i Zadvornye Ludi”: Towards the Study of the Terminology of the Census Books of the 1640s–1670s]. In Gosudarstvo i obschestvo v Rossii XV-nachala XX v. Sankt-Petersburg, Nauka, 2007, p. 316–324.

Arakcheev, V. A. (2014) Vlast I zemlja: pravitelstvennaja politika v otnoshenii tjaglyh soslovij Rossii vtoroj poloviny XVI–nachala XVII v. [Power and “land”: Government policy Towards Taxpaying Estates in Russia in the Second Half of the 16th-early 17th century]. Moscow, Drevlehranilische, 2014. 506 p.

Arakcheev, V. A. (2015) O prichinah perehoda k podvornoj sisteme nalogoobloszenija v 1678–1679 gg. [The Reasons for the Transition to the Grid System of Taxation in the Years 1678–1679]. In Eszegodnik po agrarnoj istorii Vostochnoj Evropy. 2014 god. Moscow, Samara, Samarski universitet, 2015, p. 118–125.

Arhiv Sankt-Peterburgskogo instituta istorii RAN [Archive of Saint Petersburg Institute of History RAN]). F. 134 (Dedilovskaja prikaznaja izba). Op. 1. D. 699, 704, 740, 741, 748.

Vaszinskii, V. M. (1974) Zemlevladenie i skladyvanie obschiny odnodvorzev v XVII v. [Land Tenure and the Establishment of the Community of “Odnodvorzi” in the 17th century.] Voronesz, Izd. Voroneszskogo universiteta, 1974. 255 p.

Vodarskii, A. J. (1977) Naselenie Rossii v konze XVII – nachale XVIII v. [The Population of Russia at the End of the Early 17th–18th centuries]. Moscow, Nauka, 1977. 262 p.

Vorobjev, V. M. (1983) Izszivalos’ li holopstvo v pomestjah Severo-Zapada Rossii serediny XVII – nachala XVIII v? [Did Slavery Disappear in the Estates of Northwest Russia in the Mid–17th – Early 18th Centuries]. In ISSSR. 1983. № 4, p. 113–123.

Dvorjanstvo i krepostnoj stroj Rossii XVI–XVIII vv. Moscow, Nauka, 1975. 270 p.

Gotie, J. V. Zamoskovnyj kraj v XVII v. [“Zamoskovnyj kraj” in the 17th century.] Moscow, Tip. Lissnera I Sobko, 1906. 602 s.

Zakonodatel’nye akty Russkogo gosudarstva vtoroj poloviny XVI-pervoj poloviny XVII v. Texty. [The Legislative Acts of the Russian State the Second Half of the 16th – 1st Half of the 17th centuries. Texts.] Leningrad, Nauka, 1986. 261 p.

Zakonodatel’nye akty Russkogo gosudarstva vtoroj poloviny XVI – pervoj poloviny XVII v. Kommentarii. Leningrad, Nauka, 1986. 260 p.

Kolycheva, E. I. (1971) Holopstvo i krepostnichestvo. [Slavery and Serfdom]. Moscow, Nauka, 1971. 250 p.

Korezkii, V. I. (1970) Zakreposchenie krestjan I klassovaja bor’ba v Rossii vo vtoroj polovine XVI v. [Enslavement of Peasants and Class Struggle in Russia in the Second half of the 16th century.] Moscow, Nauka, 1970. 300 p.

Pamjatniki russkogo prava (konez XV-nachalo XVII v.) [Monuments of Russian Law (Late 15th – Early 17th Centuries)]. Moscow, Izd. Juridicheskoj literatury,1956. Vyp. IV. 632 p.

Pamjatniki russkogo prava (pervaja polovina XVII v.) [Monuments of Russian law]. Moscow, Izd. Juridicheskoj literatury, 1959. Vyp. V. 667 p. (First Half at the 17th Centure).

Pamjatniki russkogo prava (vtoraja polovina XVII v.) [Monuments of Russian law]. Moscow, Izd. Juridicheskoj literatury, 1963. Vyp. VII. 510 p. (Second Half at the 17th Centure).

Panejach, V. M. (1975) Holopstvo v XVI-nachale XVII v. [Slavery in the 16th– Early 17th Centuries.] Sankt-Petersburg, Nauka,1975. 266 p.

Panejach, V. M. (1984) Holopstvo v pervoj polovine XVII v. [Slavery in the 16th– Early17th Centuries.] Sankt-Petersburg, Nauka, 1984. 259 p. Polnoje sobranije zakonov Rossijskoj imperii. [Complete Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire]. Sankt-Petersburg, Izd. Tipografii imp. kanzeljarii, 1830. Vol. 1. 1029 p.

RGADA [Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts.] F. 233 (Ugliszkaja prikaznaja izba). Op. 1. D. 301.

RGADA [Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts]. F. 1209 (Pomestnyj prikaz). Op. 1. D. 456. L. 202–216.

Sobornoe uloszenie 1649 g. Text. Kommentarii. [The Parliamentary statute of 1649]. Moscow, Nauka, 1987. 448 p.

Sudebniki XV–XVI vv. [The Law Proceeding of the 15th–16th Centuries.] Moscow, Izd. Academii Nauk, 1952. 505 p.

Hellie, R. (1998) Holopstvo v Rossii 1450–1725 gg. [Slavery in Russia, 1450–1725]. Moscow, Academia, 1998.

Jakovlev, A. I. (1943) Holopy i holopstvo v Moskovskom gosudarstve XVII v. [Slaves and Slavery in the Moscow State of the 17th Centuries.] Moscow, Izd. Academii Nauk, 1943.

Siegel, B. J. (1945) Some Methodological Considerations for a Comparative Study on Slavery. In Am. Anthrropologist, 47, pp. 357–392.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15826/qr.2016.3.178

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN 2311-911X (Print)
ISSN 2310-757X (Online)

 

BASE Search eLibrary WorldCat