Peter the Great’s Second Voyage to Europe in the Letters of Baron P. P. Shafirov to Prince A. D. Menshikov (1716–1717)

Dmitry Redin, Dmitry Serov

Abstract


This article examines correspondence between Baron P. P. Shafirov and Prince A. D. Menshikov from the spring of 1716 to the summer of 1717. These letters reveal the details of Peter I’s stay in Copenhagen, different German cities, and the Netherlands during his second European voyage. As one of the leaders of the Russian foreign ministry and a close companion of the tsar, Shafirov was at the centre of many of the political and domestic events that occurred during this tour. Like the majority of those surrounding the tsar, the baron unofficially informed A. D. Menshikov of all business requiring attention, since Menshikov was in charge of managing the Russian state during Peter’s absence. Published here for the first time, Shafirov’s letters come down to us in the form of copies made in Menshikov’s chancellery in February 1723: these are kept in fond 198 (A. D. Menshikov) of RGADA (Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts). The information in these letters is multisided. Firstly, one finds important military and political reports. While these historical narratives are rather well-known, Shafirov provides additional interesting details. Secondly, these letters are of interest because they provide news about the movement of Peter I and his wife, Tsarina Yekaterina Alekseevna, around Europe. Of particular note are the baron’s reports about the tsar’s serious illness in Amsterdam during the winter of 1716-17. The epistles also clarify the dates and routes that the tsar took, allow us to look at the climate in the countries where he stayed, and provide details about transport and communication links. Thirdly, and rather indirectly, the correspondence helps us to reconstruct the nature of the relationship between Shafirov and Menshikov and their families. All of these reasons make Shafirov’s letters a valuable historical source. Their significance is fully revealed when analysed alongside analogous documentation connected with Peter the Great’s second tour of Europe and the Great Northern War in general.

Keywords


Peter I; P. P. Shafirov; A. D. Menshikov; Peter the Great’s second European tour.

References


Bobylev, V. S. (1990). Vneshnjaja politika Rossii jepohi Petra I. [Russia’s Foreign Policy of Peter I’s Epoch]. 168 p. Moscow, Ros. un-t druzhby narodov.

Black, J. A. (1990). Eighteenth Century Europe. 1700–1789. 458 p. L., Macmillan. Brat’ja Olsuf’evy, ober-gofmejstery Petra Velikogo. Perepiska ih s kn.

A. D. Menshikovym (1717–1727) [The Olsufyev Brothers, Peter the Great’s Chief Masters of the Court. Their Correspondence with Prince A. D. Menshikov (1717–1727)]. In Russkij arhiv, Iss. 5, pp. 5–40.

Waegemans, E. (2007). Petr Velikij v Bel’gii [Peter the Great in Belgium]. 231 p. St Petersburg, Giperion.

Chernjak, E. B. (1995). Izmenenija v sisteme Evropejskih gosudarstv vo vtoroj polovine XVII - nachale XVIII v. T. 4 [Changes in the System of European States in the 2nd Half of the 17th – Early 18th Century. Vol. 4]. 509 p. In Istorija Evropy. Moscow, Nauka.

Cracraft, J. (2003). Diplomatic and Bureaucratic Revolutions. In The Revolution of Peter the Great. 192 p. Harvard Univ. Press.

Cross, A. (1996). U temzskih beregov. Rossijane v Britanii v XVIII v. Ch. II. [By the Banks of the Thames. Russians in Eighteenth Century Britain. Part II]. 387 p. St Petersburg, Akademicheskij proekt.

Dolgova, S. R., Lapteva T. A. (Ed.). (2000). Povsednevnye zapiski delam knjazja A. D. Menshikova 1716−1720, 1726−1727 gg. [Daily Notes of Prince A. D. Menshikov’s Activity 1716−1720, 1726−1727]. 582 p. Moscow, Ros. fond kul’tury; Studija “TRITJe”; Ros. Arhiv.

Fejgina, S. A. (1959). Alandskij kongress. Vneshnjaja politika Rossii v konce Severnoj vojny [Congress of Aland. Russia’s Foreign Policy at the End of the Northern War]. 548 p. Moscow, Izdatelstvo AN SSSR.

Gurzhij, O. I. (2004). Ivan Skoropads’kij [Ivan Skoropadsky]. 312 p. Kiïv, Al’ternativi.

Ivanova, P. I. (Comp.) (1858). Donesenie o moskovskom bol’shom pozhare maja 29 1737 goda [Report about the Great Fire of Moscow of 29 May 1737]. In ChOIDR. Moscow, Book 3, p. 19.

Konigsbrugge, H. van. (2014). Istorija poterjannoj druzhby: Otnoshenija Gollandii so Shveciej i Rossiej v 1714–1725 gg. [The Story of a Lost Friendship. Holland’s Relations with Sweden and Russia between 1714 and 1717]. 255 p. St Petersburg, Evropejskij dom.

Ivanova, P. I. (Ed.). (1859). Sudnoe delo nad dejstvitel’nym tajnym sovetnikom baronom Shafirovym i ober-prokurorom Senata Skornjakovym-Pisarevym [The Case of Acting Privy Councilor Baron Shafirov and Attorney General of the Senate Skornaykov-Pisarev]. In ZhMJu, Vol. 1, Book 3, pp. 3–62.

Jurnaly i pohodnye zhurnaly Petra Velikogo s 1695 po 1725 gg. [Journals and Route Journals of Peter the Great from 1695 to 1725]. (1853–1855). St Petersburg. Materialy dlja istorii russkogo flota [Materials for the History of the Russian Navy]. (1865). 724 p. St Petersburg.

Molchanov, N. N. (1991). Diplomatija Petra Velikogo [Peter the Great’s Diplomacy]. 446 p. Moscow, Mezhdunarodnye otnoshenija.

Morokhin, A. V. (2017). “I takoj zloj dorogi ne vidali”: Iz istorii puteshestvija caricy Ekateriny Alekseevny po Germanii v konce 1716 g. [‘Such an Evil Road I Have Never Seen’: Tsarina Ekaterina Alekseevna’s Trip through Germany at the End of 1716]. In Quaestio Rossica, Iss. 2, pp. 367–384.

Nikiforov, L. A. (1950). Russko-anglijskie otnoshenija pri Petre I [Russia – England Relations during the Reign of Peter I]. 279 p. Moscow, Gospolitizdat.

Oakley, S. P. (1992). War and peace in the Baltic 1560–1790. 216 p. L., NY, Routledge.

Plumb, J. H. (1950). England in the Eighteenth Century. 224 p. Harmondsworth, Penguin Books.

Simpson, J. (1985). Arresting a Diplomat, 1717. In History Today, Vol. 35, pp. 32–37.

Pajkov, V. L. (2015). Zhit’, muchajas’, – ne tak uzh ploho. (O zhizni i konchine Petra Alekseevicha Romanova, velikogo imperatora Rossii) [Living in Suffering Is Not Entirely Bad (On the Life and Death of Peter Alekseevich Romanov, the Great Emperor of Russia)].URL: www.netslova.ru/paikov/petrI.html (mode of access: 03.05.2017).

Pis’ma i bumagi imperatora Petra Velikogo [Letters and Papers of Peter the Great]. (1962). Moscow, Izdatel’stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR. Vol. 11, Iss. 1, p. 317.

Pis’ma russkih gosudarej i drugih osob carskogo semejstva. Perepiska Imperatora Petra I s Gosudarynej Ekaterinoj Alekseevnoj T. I [Letters of Russian Monarchs and Other Members of the Royal Family. Peter I’s Correspondence with Tsarina Ekaterina Alekseevna. Vol. I]. (1862). 186 p. Moscow, Tipogragija Sergeja Orolova.

Pravila izdaniya istoricheskikh dokumentov v SSSR. 2-e izd., pererab. i dop. [Publication Rules for Historical Documents in the USSR. 2nd Edition, Update]. (1990). 83 p. Moscow, Glavnoe arkhivnoe upravlenie pri SM SSSR.

RGADA [Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts]. Stock 9. Sect. 1. Vol. 58. List 318a; Stock 248. Vol. 1888. List 599 ob.; Stock 198. Sect. 1. Dossier 1035. List 81; Stock 198. Sect. 1. Dossier 1035. List 82–152; Stock 2583. Sect. 1. Vol. 24. List 98.

Serov, D. O. (2008). Administracija Petra I [Peter I’s Administration]. 291 p. Moscow, OGI.

Solov’ev, S. M. (1997). Sochinenija. V 18 kn. Kn. IX.T. 17–18. Istorija Rossii s drevnejshih vremen [Works. In 18 Books. Book IX, Vols. 17–18]. 720 p. Moscow, Golos; Kolokol-Press.

Whitworth, Ch. (1988). Rossija v nachale XVIII veka: sochinenie Ch. Uitvorta “An Account of Russia as it was in the Year 1710” [Russia in the Early 18th Century: The Work by Ch. Whitworth An Account of Russia as It Was in the Year 1710]. Moscow, Leningrad, Izdatelstvo AN SSSR.

Ustrjalov, N. G. (1859). Istorija carstvovanija Petra Velikogo, T.6 [The History of Peter the Great’s Reign, Vol. 6]. 628 p. St Petersburg, Tip. ii-go otdeleniya sobstv. ego imp. vel. kancelyarii.

Waegemans, E. (2013). Car’ v Respublike: Vtoroe puteshestvie Petra Velikogo v Niderlandy (1716–1717) [A Tsar in a Republic. Peter the Great’s Second Trip to the Netherlands]. 256 p. St Petersburg, Evropejskij dom.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15826/qr.2017.2.229

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN 2311-911X (Print)
ISSN 2310-757X (Online)

 

BASE Search eLibrary WorldCat