Youth and Revolution: The Social Image of Young Communist Party Members in Yekaterinburg Province (1922‒1924)

Lyudmila Mazur

Abstract


This article considers the implementation of the “social bulldozer” by young Communist Party members of the early 1920s. The period was characterised by intensive social changes in many spheres of society, and the youth was supposed to play a special role as a strike force in the process. The Party and the government of the country aimed at the indoctrination of young people’s consciousness, their political education, militarisation, and organising various sports and cultural activities. As a result of this complex youth policy, there appeared a new system of values whose main objective was for youth to serve their state and the ideals of communism. As more and more young people became members of the Party, the latter grew in power and control. Referring to the primary materials of the All-Russian census of the members of the RCP(B), the article describes the social image of the Party youth and their career strategies. The youth of the period in question accounted for the majority of the members of the Party, thus defining the social portrait of communists. The young members of the Party did not have a high level of education. As for their career aspirations, they were meant to perform leading functions at the lower (volost’) and uyezd levels, where they became a labour pool to later be promoted to higher positions.


Keywords


Russian history of the 1920s; youth policy of the RCP(B); social structure of the Party youth; social image

References


Andruhov, N. R. (1977). Partiinoe stroitel’stvo v period bor’by za pobedu sotsializma v SSSR. 1917‒1937 [Party Construction during the Struggle for the Victory of Socialism in the USSR. 1917–1937]. Moscow, Politizdat. 374 p.

Dumova, N. G., Erofeev, N. D., Tyutyukin, S. V. (1994). Istoriya politicheskikh partii Rossii [The History of Political Parties of Russia] / ed. by A. I. Zevelev. Moscow, Vysshaya shkola. 447 p.

Gramatchikova, N., Enina, L. (2015). Kniga o lyubvi i vernosti: rekonstruk-tsiya obraza ottsa-kommunista v vospominaniyakh docheri [A Book about Love and Fidelity: Reconstruction of the Image of the Father-communist in the Memoirs of a Daughter]. In Quaestio Rossica. No. 4, pp. 109–129.

Guslyarov, E. N. (2002). Stalin v zhizni. Sistematizirovannyi svod vospomi-nanii sovremennikov, dokumentov epohi, versii istorikov [Stalin in His Life. A Systematised Collection of Memoirs of Contemporaries, Documents of the Epoch, and Versions of Historians]. Moscow, OLMA-Press, Zvezdnyi mir. 749 p.

Isaev, V. I. (2000). Molodezh’ Sibiri v usloviyakh formirovaniya stalinskoi modeli sotsializma (1920–1930-e gg.) [Young People of Siberia in the Conditions of the Formation of the Stalinist Model of Socialism (1920–1930)]. Novosibirsk, Izdatel’stvo Novosibirskogo universiteta. 48 p.

Isaev, V. I. (2002). Voenizatsiya molodezhi i molodezhnyi ekstremizm v Sibiri (1920-e ‒ nachalo 1930-kh gg.) [The Militarisation of Youth and Youth Extremism in Siberia (1920s ‒ Early 1930s)]. In Vestnik NGU. Seriya: Istoriya, filologiya. Vol. 1. No. 3. Istoriya, pp. 63–70.

Kon, I. S. (1988). Sotsiologiya molodezhi [Youth Sociology]. In Gvishiani, D. M., Lapina, N. I. (Eds.). Kratkii slovar’ po sotsiologii / comp. by E. M. Korzheva, N. F. Naumova. Moscow, Politizdat, pp. 353–354.

KPSS v rezolyutsiyakh i resheniyakh s”ezdov, konferentsii i plenumov TsK v 15 t. [The KPSU in Resolutions and Decisions of Congresses, Conferences, and Plenary Meetings of the Central Committee. 15 vols.]. (1983). Vol. 2. Moscow, Politizdat. 606 p.

Kuznetsov, I. V. (1998). Kommunisty Tsentral’nogo promyshlennogo raiona v dvadtsatye gody, sotsial’nyi portret po materialam Vsesoyuznoi partiinoi perepisi 1927 goda [Communists of the Central Industrial District in the Twenties, a Social Portrait with Reference to the All-Union Party Census of 1927]. In Borodkin, L. I., Sidortsov, V. N., Yushin, I. F. (Eds.). Krug idei: makro- i mikropodkhody v istoricheskoi informatike. Trudy V konferentsii Assotsiatsii “Istoriya i komp’yuter”. Minsk, BGU, pp. 109–130.

Latsis, O. (1989). Perelom. Stalin protiv Lenina [Change. Stalin against Lenin]. In Senokosov, Yu. P. (Ed.). Surovaya drama naroda. Moscow, Politizdat, pp. 142–164.

Lel’chuk, V. S., Tyutyukin, S. V. (2000). Bol’sheviki [Bolsheviks]. In Zevelev, A. I., Sviridenko, Yu. P., Shelokhaev, V. V. (Eds.). Politicheskie partii Rossii: istoriya i sovremennost’. Moscow, ROSSPEN, pp. 243‒259. URL: http://grachev62.narod.ru/mnpt/chapt12.htm (mode of access: 28.04.2017).

Lenin, V. I. (1970). Gosudarstvo rabochikh i partiinaya nedelya [The Workers’ State and Party Week]. In Lenin, V. I. Polnoe sobranie sochinenii v 55 t. Ed. 5. Moscow, Politizdat. Vol. 39, pp. 224–226.

Lenin, V. I. (1981). O zadachakh soyuzov molodezhi. Rech’ na III Vserossiiskom s”ezde Rossiiskogo Kommunisticheskogo Soyuza Molodezhi 2 oktyabrya 1920 goda [On the Tasks of the Unions of Youth. A Speech Delivered at the 3rd All-Russian Congress of the Russian Union of Communist Youth on 2 October 1920]. In Lenin, V. I. Polnoe sobranie sochinenii. Ed. 5. Moscow, Politizdat. Vol. 41, pp. 298–318.

Lenin, V. I. (1985). KPSS ob organizatsionno-partiinoi rabote v 4 t. [KPSU about Organisational and Party Work. 4 Vols.]. Moscow, Politizdat. Vol. 1. Chlenstvo v KPSS. 400 p.

Lisovskii, V. T. (Ed.). (1996). Sotsiologiya molodezhi [Youth Sociology]. St Petersburg, Izdatel’stvo SPbGU. 460 p.

Lukov, V. A. (N. d.). Vozrastnye granitsy molodezhi [Age Boundaries of People]. In Lukov, V. A. (Ed.). Sotsiologiya molodezhi. Elektronnaya entsiklopediya. URL: http://www.soc-mol.ru/encyclopaedia/youth/281-vozrastnye-granicy.html (mode of access: 12.10.2017).

Mangeim, K. (1995). Diagnoz nashego vremeni [Diagnosis of our Time]. Moscow, Yurist. 693 p. URL: http://www.krotov.info/libr_min/13_m/an/heim3.html (mode of access: 12.10.2017).

Mazur, L., Gorbachev, O. (2016). Primary Sources on the History of the Soviet Family in the Twentieth Century: an Analytical Review. In History of the Family. Vol. 21. No. 1, pp. 101–120.

Mead, M. (1970). Culture and Commitment. A Study of the Generation Gap. N. Y., Basic Books. 128 p.

Mead, M. (1988). Kul’tura i mir detstva. Izbrannye proizvedeniya [Culture and the World of Childhood. Selected Works] / transl. by Yu. A. Aseev. Moscow, Nauka. 429 p.

Naumov, O. V., Shepelev, V. N. (1986). Materialy Vserossiiskoi perepisi chlenov RKP(b) 1922 g. [Materials of the All-Russian Census of Members of RCP(B) of 1922]. In Voprosy istorii KPSS. No. 4, pp. 48‒62.

Naumova, N. F. (1995). Zhiznennaya strategiya cheloveka v perekhodnom obshchestve [The Life Strategy of a Person in a Transitional Society]. In Sotsiologicheskii zhurnal. No. 2, pp. 5–22.

Newfield, J. (1996). A Prophetic Minority. N. Y., N. Am. Library. 212 p.

Reich, C. (1970). The Greening of America. N. Y., Random House. 399 p.

Reznik, Yu. M. (1995). Sotsial’noe izmerenie zhiznennogo mira (vvedenie v sotsiologiyu zhizni) [Social Measurement of the Living World (Introduction to Life Sociology)]. Moscow, Soyuz. 100 p.

RGASPI ‒ Rossiiskii gosudarstvennyi arkhiv sotsial’no-politicheskoi istorii [Russian State Archive of Socio-political History]. Stock 17. List 85. Dos. 169.

Rozhkov, A. Yu. (2014). V krugu sverstnikov: Zhiznennyi mir molodogo cheloveka v sovetskoi Rossii 1920-kh godov [In the Circle of Peers: The Life World of a Young Person in Soviet Russia in the 1920s]. Moscow, Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie. 640 p.

Sever’yanova, G. M. (1995). Krest’yanskie vosstaniya v Sibiri (osen’ 1920–1924 gg.). [Country Revolts in Siberia (Autumn 1920–1924)]. Krasnoyarsk, S. n. 90 p.

Teplyakova, T. P. (1983). Rol’ partiinykh perepisei 1922 i 1927 gg. v ukreple-nii ryadov partii [The Role of Party Censuses of 1922 and 1927 in Strengthening the Ranks of the Party]. Dis. … kand. ist. nauk. Moscow, S. n. 274 p.

TsDOOSO ‒ Tsentr dokumentatsii obshchestvennykh organizatsii Sverdlovskoi oblasti [Centre for the Documentation of Public Organisations of Sverdlovsk Region]. Stock 76.

Tyazhel’nikova, V. S. (1990). Sostav partiinyh organizatsii v konce 20-kh godov (Opyt kolichestvennogo analiza po materialam Vsesoyuznoi partiinoj perepisi 1927 g.) [The Structure of Party Organisations in the Late Twenties (An Attempt at Quantitative Analysis with Reference to the All-Union Party Census of 1927)]. In Voprosy istorii KPSS. No. 1, pp. 70–81.

Vorob’ev, S. V. (2004). Sotsial’nyi portret kommunistov Urala nachala 1920-h gg.: istochnikovedcheskoe issledovanie materialov Vserossiiskoi partiinoi perepisi chlenov RKP(b) 1922 g. [Social Portrait of Communists of the Urals of the Early 1920s: Source Study Research of the Materials of the All-Russian Party Census of Members of RCP(B) of 1922]. Avtoref. dis. … kand. ist. nauk. Yekaterinburg, S. n. 263 p.

Vorob’ev, S. V. (2005). Problema sotsial’nogo oblika kommunistov Urala v nachale 1920-h gg.: sravnitel’nyi analiz massovykh istochnikov [Issue of the Social Face of Communists of the Urals in the Early Twenties: A Comparative Analysis of Mass Sources]. In Chernoukhov, A. V. (Ed.). Dokument. Arkhiv. Istoriya. Sovremennost’. Vol. 5. Yekaterinburg, Izdatel’stvo Ural’skogo universiteta, pp. 314–323.

Vos’maya konferentsiya RKP(b). Dekabr’ 1919 g. Protokoly [Eighth Conference of the RCP(B). December, 1919. Protocols]. (1961). Moscow, Gosudarstvennoe izdatel’stvo politicheskoi literatury. 316 p.

Vos’moi s”ezd RKP(b). Mart 1919 goda. Protokoly [Eighth Congress of the RKP(B). March, 1919. Protocols]. (1959). Moscow, Gospolitizdat. XVIII + 602 p.

Vserossiiskaya perepis’ chlenov RKP 1922 goda [All-Russian Census of Members of the RCP of 1922]. (1922‒1925). No. 1‒5. Moscow, Izdatel’skoe otdelenie TsK RKP.

Zhuravlev, V. V. (2000). RSDRP(b) – RKP(b) na etape prevrashcheniya v pravyashchuyu partiyu (oktyabr’ 1917–1920 gg.) [RSDRP (B) – RCP(B) at the Stage of Transformation into the Party in Office (October, 1917–1920)]. In Zevelev, A. I., Sviridenko, Yu. P., Shelokhaev, V. V. (Eds). Politicheskie partii Rossii: istoriya i sovremennost’. Moscow, ROSSPEN, pp. 387–404. URL: http://grachev62.narod.ru/mnpt/chapt19.htm (mode of access: 28.04.2017).




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15826/qr.2017.4.264

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN 2311-911X (Print)
ISSN 2313-6871 (Online)

 

BASE Search eLibrary WorldCat