“The Kulikovo Captivity”: The Image of Dmitry Donskoy in National Historical Memory

Evgeny Rostovtsev, Dmitry Sosnitsky

Abstract


This article describes the evolution of the image of Prince Dmitry Donskoy in Russian social thinking and historical consciousness between the second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The authors single out sources that played an important role in the formation of this image and Dmitry Donskoy’s place among the other national leaders as reflected in national memory. The analysis is conducted with reference to the most widespread sources forming the national memory of the past (i. e. educational texts, fiction, periodicals, journalistic texts, films, monuments, Internet resources, and special historical studies). The authors also consider some commemoration practices connected both with Grand Prince Dmitry Donskoy and the main event of his life, the Battle of Kulikovo. The article describes the role of political and social bias in the formation of modern society’s perception of the prince and analyses its prospects for further development in mass consciousness. The authors conclude that the way in which the perception of Dmitry Donskoy has developed is dramatic: the prince’s involvement in the battle, which at some point made him the central figure of the pantheon of heroes of the Tsardom of Moscow, turned into the “Kulikovo captivity”, which made it impossible for the image of the prince to be perceived differently. Thus, the image of the prince gradually declined in popularity during the 19th and early 20th centuries, and his canonization was postponed indefinitely. It is noteworthy that it only became possible to canonize Dmitry Donskoy at the end of the Soviet era due to a favourable historical policy meant to give a new perspective on the perception of the prince. The post-Soviet times have seen a new stage in the “resurrection” of the hero; however, the authors argue that there are things that impede it, which are connected with the peculiarities of cultural memory and the way in which Dmitry Donskoy is represented in it.


Keywords


Dmitry Donskoy; historical memory; historical consciousness; Battle of Kulikovo

References


[Innokentii Gizel’]. (1823). Sinopsis, ili kratkoe sobranie ot razlichnykh letopistsev o nachale slavyanorossiiskogo naroda… [A Synopsis or Brief Collection of the Chroniclers of the Early Slavic Russian People...]. Kiev, Kievo-Pecherskaya lavra. 166 p.

[Ot redaktsii] [From the Editors]. (1880). In Golos. No. 249. 9 (21) sentyabrya, p. 1.

[Ot redaktsii] [From the Editors]. (1880). In Moskovskie vedomosti. No. 249. 8 sentyabrya, p. 2.

Afanas’ev, E. L. (1980). Kulikovskaya bitva v izobrazhenii russkikh pisatelei XVIII v. [The Battle of Kulikovo as Described by Russian Writers of the 18th Century]. In. Izvestiya Akademii nauk SSSR. Seriya literatury i yazykoznaniya. Vol. 39. No. 4, pp. 291–300.

Akunin, B. (2015). Bokh i Shel’ma: [povesti] [Bosch and Schelm: [Stories]]. Moscow, AST. 300 p.

Bellyarminov, I. I. (1993). Elementarnyi kurs vseobshchei i russkoi istorii [An Elementary Course of General and Russian History]. In Esteferova, T. V. (Ed.). Uchebniki dorevolyutsionnoi Rossii po istorii. Moscow, Prosveshchenie, pp. 6–180.

Bitva na Kulikovskom pole, ili knyaz’ Dmitrii Ioannovich Donskoi. Istoricheskii rasskaz [The Battle on Kulikovo Field, or Prince Dmitry Ivanovich Donskoy. A Historical Story]. (1884). Moscow, D. I. Presnov. 35 p.

Bol’shaya sovetskaya entsiklopediya. Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik. (1947). Moscow, Sovetskaya entsiklopediya (BSE).

Borisov, N. S. (2009). Istoriya Rossii s drevneishikh vremen do kontsa XVII veka. 10 klass: uchebnik dlya obshcheobrazovatel’nykh uchrezhdenii: bazovyi uroven’ [The History of Russia from Ancient Times to the Late Seventeenth Century. 10th Grade: Textbook Educational Institutions: Basic Level]. Moscow, Prosveshchenie. 255 p.

Dimitrii Ivanovich Donskoi [Dmitry Ivanovich Donskoy]. (1935). In Bol’shaya sovetskaya entsiklopediya, in 65 vols. Vol. 22. Moscow, Sovetskaya entsiklopediya, stlb. 418–419.

Dmitriev, L. A. (1980). Kulikovskaya bitva v drevnerusskikh literaturnykh pamyatnikakh [The Battle of Kulikovo in Medieval Russian Literary Works]. In Povest’ o Kulikovskoi bitve. Iz litsevogo letopisnogo svoda XVI v. Leningrad, Avrora, pp. 178–182.

Dmitrii Donskoi [Dmitry Donskoy]. In Universal’naya entsiklopediya Kirilla i Mefodiya [website]. URL: http://megabook.ru/article/Дмитрий%20Донской (mode of access: 29.04.2016).

Dmitrii Ivanovich Donskoi [Dmitry Ivanovich Donskoy]. In Wikipedia [website]. URL: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Дмитрий_Иванович_Донской (mode of access: 29.04.2016).

Elektronnyi katalog RNB [The NLR Electronic Catalogue]. In Rossiiskaya natsional’naya biblioteka [official website]. URL: http://primo.nlr.ru/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?menuitem=0&fromTop=true&fromPreferences=false&fromEshelf=-false&vid=07NLR_VU1 (mode of access: 11.05.2016).

Elizavetina, G. G. (1980). Kulikovskaya bitva i problema natsional’nogo kharaktera v proizvedeniyakh russkikh revolyutsionnykh demokratov [The Battle of Kulikovo and the Problem of National Character in the Works of Russian Revolutionary Democrats]. In Robinson, A. N. (Ed.). Kulikovskaya bitva v literature i iskusstve. Moscow, Nauka, pp. 234–246.

Filyushkin, A. I. (2000). “Kulikovskii tsikl”: opyt germenevticheskogo issledovaniya [“The Kulikovo Cycle”: An Attempt at Hermeneutic Research]. In Kulikovo pole: voprosy istoriko-kul’turnogo naslediya. Trudy nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii “Kulikovo pole-unikal’naya kul’turno-istoricheskaya i prirodnaya territoriya”. Problemy izucheniya i sokhraneniya voenno-istoricheskogo i prirodnogo naslediya Tsentral’noi Rossii (Moscow – Tula, 25–27 oktyabrya 1999 g.). Tula, Tul’skii poligrafist, pp. 172–186.

Golubinskii, E. E. (1998). Istoriya kanonizatsii svyatykh v Russkoi tserkvi [History of the Canonization of Saints in the Russian Church]. Moscow, Krutitskoe patriarshee podvor’e. 597 p.

Ilovaiskii, D. I. (1993). Kratkie ocherki russkoi istorii [Short Essays on Russian History]. In Esteferova, T. V. (Ed.). Uchebniki dorevolyutsionnoi Rossii po istorii. Moscow, Prosveshchenie, pp. 182–301.

Imya Rossii [The Name of Russia]. In Imya. Rossiya. Istoricheskii vybor 2008 [website]. URL: http://top50.nameofrussia.ru/rating.html?all=1 (mode of access: 11.05.2016).

Kniga Stepennaya tsarskogo rodosloviya [The Book of Ranks of the Royal Genealogy]. (1913). In Polnoe sobranie russkikh letopisei, in 43 vols. Vol. 21. Part 2. St Petersburg, Tipografiya M. A. Aleksandrova, pp. 343–675.

Kostomarov, N. I. (2001). Russkaya istoriya v zhizneopisaniyakh ee glavneishikh deyatelei, in 4 vols. [Russian History in the Biographies of Its Main Figures. 4 vols.]. Vol. 1. Moscow, Ripol Klassik. 585 p.

Kuchkin, V. A. (1995). Dmitrii Donskoi [Dmitry Donskoy]. In Voprosy istorii. No. 5–6, pp. 62‒83.

Kulikovskaya bitva [The Battle of Kulikovo]. (1937). In Bol’shaya sovetskaya entsiklopediya, in 65 vols. Vol. 35. Moscow, Sovetskaya entsiklopediya, stlb. 453–454.

Mikhailov, I. (1827). Nizverzhennyi Mamai, ili Obstoyatel’noe opisanie pobedy, byvshei v tsarstvovanie Velikogo Knyazya Moskovskogo Dimitriya Ioannovicha nad Mamaem, Tatarskim Khanom, i o sovershennom istreblenii sil’nogo opolcheniya ego Rossiyanami na Kulikovom pole, mezhdu rek: Mechi i Dona, sobrannoe iz raznykh dostovernykh pisatelei Ivanom Mikhailovym [The Overthrown Mamai, or a Detailed Description of the Victory in the Reign of the Grand Prince of Moscow Dmitry Ivanovich over Mamai, the Tatar Khan, and the Perfect Destruction of a Strong Militia by his Russians in Kulikovo Field between the Rivers Don and Mecha, Gathered from Different Reliable Writers by Ivan Mikhailov]. Moscow, Universal’naya tipografiya. 74 p.

Mikhailova, I. B., Efimova, M. V. (2010). Moskva i Konstantinopol’ v knyazhenie Dmitriya Donskogo: novyi “Tsar’grad” [Moscow and Constantinople in the Reign of Dmitry Donskoy: The New “Constantinople”]. In Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta. Seria 2. No. 4, pp. 3–15.

Nechkina, M. V., Fadeev, A. V. (1962). Istoriya SSSR. Uchebnoe posobie dlya 7-go klassa [The History of the USSR. Textbook for 7th Grade]. Moscow, Uchpedgiz. 264 p.

Orden svyatogo blagovernogo velikogo knyazya Dimitriya Donskogo [The Order of Saint Grand Duke Dmitry Donskoy]. In Wikipediya [website]. URL: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Орден_святого_благоверного_великого_князя_Димитрия_Донского (mode of access: 11.05.2016).

Ordyntsev, M. (1913). Na Kulikovom pole. Istoricheskii rasskaz vremen Dimitriya Donskogo [In Kulikovo Field. Historical Narrative of the Time of Dmitry Donskoy]. St Petersburg, V. I. Gubinskii. 32 p.

Patriarkh Kirill osvyatil pamyatnik Dmitriyu Donskomu v tsentre stolitsy [Patriarch Kirill Consecrates a Monument to Dmitry Donskoy in the Centre of the Capital]. In RIA Novosti [website]. URL: http://ria.ru/society/20140508/1007040465.html (mode of access: 11.05.2016).

Petrov, A. E. (2004). Evolyutsiya pamyati o Kulikovskoi bitve 1380 g. v epokhu stanovleniya Moskovskogo samoderzhaviya (rubezh XV–XVI vv.): K voprosu o momente transformatsii mesta pamyati [The Evolution of the Memory of the Battle of Kulikovo in 1380 in the Era of the Formation of the Muscovite Autocracy (the Turn of the 16th Century): On the Moment of Transformation of Places of Memory]. In Istoricheskie zapiski. Vol. 7 (125), pp. 35–56.

Petrushevskii, A. (1915). Rasskazy pro staroe vremya na Rusi. Vypusk 8. Dimitrii Donskoi i Mamaevo poboishche [Stories about the Old Days in Russia. No. 8. Dimitry Donskoy and Mamai]. Moscow, Tovarishchestvo V. V. Dumnov, nasledniki brat’ev Salaevykh. 18 p.

Predmetnyi catalog [Subject Directory]. In Gosudarstvennaya publichnaya istoricheskaya biblioteka Rossii [website]. URL: http://predmet.shpl.ru/scripts/uis/main.php (mode of access: 11.05.2016).

Prohorov, G. M. (1978). Povest’ o Mitjae: Rus’ i Vizantija v jepohu Kulikovskoj bitvy [The Story of Mityai: Russia and Byzantium in the Age of the Battle of Kulikovo]. Leningrad, Nauka. 238 p.

Pushkarev, L., Pushkareva, N. Dmitrii Ivanovich Donskoi [Dmitry Ivanovich Donskoy]. In Entsiklopediya Krugosvet [website]. URL: http://www.krugosvet.ru/node/34040 (mode of access: 29.04.2016).

Rostovtsev, E. A., Sosnitskii, D. A. (2010). Idealy v kotorye veryat… Motiv sakral’nogo v istoricheskikh narrativakh o voine (po materialam khudozhestvennoi literatury): postanovka problemy [Ideals in Which They Believe... The Motif of the Sacred in Historical Narratives about the War (with Reference to Works of Fiction): Problem Statement]. In Ermachenko, I. O., Kapilupi, S. M. (Eds.). Voina i sakral’nost’: Materialy Chetvertykh mezhdunarodnykh nauchnykh chtenii “Mir i voina: kul’turnye konteksty sotsial’noi agressii” (St Petersburg – Vyborg – Staraya Ladoga, 1–4 oktyabrya 2009 g.). Moscow, St Petersburg, Institut vseobshchei istorii RAN, pp. 224–229.

Rubinstein, N. L. (2008). Russkaya istoriografiya [Russian Historiography] / ed. by Dvornichenko, A. Yu., Krivosheev, Yu. V., Mandrik, M. V. St Petersburg, Izdatel’stvo Sankt-Peterburgskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. 938 p.

Rybakov, B. A., Sakharov, A. M., Preobrazhenskii, A. A., Krasnobaev, B. I. Istoriya SSSR: uchebnik dlya 8 klassa srednei shkoly [History of the USSR: Textbook for 8th Grade Middle School]. (1991) / ed. by Rybakov, B. A. Moscow, Prosveshchenie. 302 p.

Shestakov, A. V. (Ed.). (1946). Istoriya SSSR. Kratkii kurs. Uchebnik dlya 4-go klassa [History of the USSR. A Short Course. The Textbook for 4th Grade]. Ed. 4. Moscow, Uchpedgiz. 280 p.

Shevtsov, V. (1980). Fanfary nad krasnym kholmom [Fanfare over Red Hill]. In Pravda. No. 251 (22681). 7 sentyabrya, p. 8.

Slava geroev bessmertna [The Glory of Heroes is Immortal]. (1980). In Izvestiya. No. 212 (19582). 8 sentyabrya, p. 8.

Smirnov, M. (1940). Kul’t Sergiya Radonezhskogo (Istoricheskii ocherk) [The Cult of St Sergius of Radonezh (Historical Sketch)]. In Antireligioznik. No. 5–6, pp. 32–39.

Sosnitskii, D. A. (2015). Istoricheskaya pamyat’ o dopetrovskoi Rusi v Rossii vtoroi poloviny XIX – nachala XXI vv., dis. … kand. ist. nauk [The Historical Memory of Pre-Petrine Russia between the Second Half of the 19th and Early 21st Centuries, PhD Thesis]. St Petersburg, Sankt-Peterburgskii gosudarstvennyi universitet. 344 p.

Stetsyura, T. D. (2010). Svyatoi blagovernyi knyaz’ Aleksandr Nevskii [The Holy Nobleborn Prince Alexander Nevsky]. In Torkunov, A. V. (Ed.). Aleksandr Nevskii. Gosudar’, diplomat, voin. Moscow, R. Valent, pp. 219‒266.

Troitskii, V. Yu. (1980). Kulikovskaya bitva v tvorchestve russkikh romantikov 10–30-kh gg. XIX veka [The Battle of Kulikovo in the Works of Russian Romantics of the 1910s–1930s]. In Kulikovskaya bitva v literature i iskusstve. Moscow, Nauka, pp. 217–233.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15826/qr.2017.4.272

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN 2311-911X (Print)
ISSN 2313-6871 (Online)

 

BASE Search eLibrary WorldCat