Competition between Russian and Ukrainian Nationalism before and during World War I – the History and Policy of Memory

Alexey Miller

Abstract


This article analyses the factors and actors that played a decisive role in the competition between the all-Russian and Ukrainian projects of national development between 1906 and 1926. The study concerns the territories quite often referred to as the Western outskirts of the Russian state. It was there that the Russian state faced the first and most serious challenge from the side of Polish nationalism. It was in that region that they started using nationalist tools. This resulted in the emergence of Russian nationalism as an ideological movement, which was to a considerable extent a reaction to the problems of the periphery of the country. It was in this crucible of the Russian-Polish and later Russian-German competition that the Ukrainian, Lithuanian, and Belarusian national projects started to form. The article consists of two parts. The first describes the situation in Ukraine before the war with reference to a few significant sources, while the second focuses on World War I. The article aims to consider a number of issues that have not been studied previously, especially in contemporary national historical narratives.


Keywords


Russian nationalism; Ukrainian nationalism; national development projects; Russian Empire; Ukraine; World War I; memory policy

References


AVPRI [The Archive of Foreign Policy of the Russian Empire]. Stock 135. List 474. Dos. 26; 27, 1.12.

Bakhturina, А. Yu. (2000). Politika Rossiiskoi imperii v Vostochnoi Galitsii v gody Pervoi mirovoi voiny [The Policy of the Russian Empire in Eastern Galicia during the First World War]. Moscow, АIRO–XX. 264 p.

Chikalenko, E. (2004). Shodennik v 2 t. [Diary. 2 Vols.]. Kiїv, Tempora. Vol. 1. 1907–1917. 426 p.

Chikalenko, E., Stebnits’kii, P. (2008). Listuvannya. 1901–1922 roki [Correspondence. 1901–1922]. Kiїv, Tempora. 628 p.

Deak, I. (1990). Beyond Nationalism: A Social and Political History of the Habsburg Officer Corps, 1848–1918. N. Y., Oxford Univ. Press. 314 p.

Dolbilov, M. D., Miller, А. I. (Eds.). (2006). Zapadnye okrainy Rossiiskoi imperii [The Western Borderland of the Russian Empire]. Moscow, Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie. 608 p.

Dornik, W., Kasianov, G., Leidinger, H., Lieb, P., Miller, A., Musial, B., Rasevyc V. (Hrsg.). (2011). Die Ukrainezwischen Selbstbestimmung und Fremdherrschaft 1917–1922. Graz, Leykam. 544 S.

Efremov, V. P. (Eds.). (1925). Rossiya v mirovoi voine 1914–1918 (v tsifrakh) [Russia in the World War of 1914–1918 (in Figures)]. Moscow, Tsentral’noe statisticheskoe upravlenie SSSR, Voenno-statisticheskii otdel. 103 p.

Gatrell, P. (1999). A Whole Empire Walking: Refugees in Russia during World War I. Bloomington, Indiana Univ. Press. 317 p.

Grelka, F. (2005). Die Ukrainische Nationalbewegung unter deutscher Besatzungsherrschaft 1918 und 1941/42. Wiesbaden, Otto Harrasowitz Verlag. 507 S.

Golovin, N. N. (1939). Voennye usiliya Rossii v mirovoi voine v 2 t. [Russia’s Military Efforts in the World War. 2 Vols.]. Paris, Tovarishchestvo ob”edinennykh izdatelei. Vol. 1. 211 p. Vol. 2. 242 p.

Gosudarstvennaya duma. III sozyv. Stenograficheskie otchety, 1909, 3 sessiya v 4 ch. [The State Duma. 3rd Convocation. Verbatim Records, 1909. Session 4. 4 Parts]. (1910). St Petersburg, Gosudarstvennaya tipografiya. Part 1. 3796 cols.

Gosudarstvennaya duma. III sozyv. Stenograficheskie otchety, 1910, 4 sessiya v 3 ch. [The State Duma. 3rd Convocation. Verbatim Records, 1910. Session 4. 3 Parts]. (1910). St Petersburg, Gosudarstvennaya tipografiya. Part 1. 3368 cols.

Gosudarstvennaya duma. IV sozyv. Stenograficheskie otchety, 1913–1914, 2 sessiya v 5 ch. [The State Duma. 4th Convocation. Verbatim Records, 1913–1914. Session 2. 5 Parts]. (1914). St Petersburg, Gosudarstvennaya tipografiya. Part 1. 2096 cols.

Guthier, S. L. (1981). Ukrainian Cities during the Revolution and the Interwar Era. In Rethinking Ukrainian History. Edmonton, Canadian Inst. of Ukrainian Studies, Univ. of Alberta, pp. 156–179.

Hagen, М. von. (1998). The Great War and the Mobilization of Ethnicity. In Post-Soviet Political Order: Conflict and State-Building. London: Routledge, pp. 34–57.

Kadio, J. (2010). Laboratoriya imperii: Rossiya / SSSR, 1860–1940 [Laboratory of the Empire: Russia / USSR, 1860–1940]. Moscow, Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie. 336 p.

Kaiser, R. (1994). The Geography of Nationalism in Russia and the USSR. Princeton, N. Jersey, Princeton Univ. Press. 471 p.

Kappeler, А. (1997). Mazepintsy, malorossy, khokhly: ukraintsy v etnicheskoi ierarkhii Rossiiskoi imperii [Mazepians, Little Russians, Ukrainians in the Ethnic Hierarchy of the Russian Empire]. In Miller, A. I., Reprintsev, V. F., Florya, B. N. (Eds.). Rossiya – Ukraina: istoriya vzaimootnoshenii. Moscow, Yazyki russkoi kul’tury, pp. 125–144.

Kir’yanov, Yu. I. (2001). Pravye partii Rossii, 1911–1917 [Right-wing Parties of Russia, 1911–1917]. Moscow, ROSSPEN. 446 p.

Kornilov, V. (2011). Donetsko-Krivorozhskaya respublika: Rasstrelyannaya mechta [Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic: The Shot Dream]. Khar’kov, Folio. 800 p.

Kotenko, А. L., Martynyuk, O. V., Miller, А. I. (2012). „Maloross” [“Little Russian”]. In Miller, A. I., Sdvizhkov, D., Shirle, I. (Eds.). „Ponyatiya o Rossii”: k istoricheskoi semantike imperskogo perioda v 2 t. [“Concepts about Russia”: On the Historical Semantics of the Imperial Period. 2 Vols.]. Moscow, Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie. Vol. 2, pp. 392–443.

Kuchera, I. V. (2009). Dobrovіl’na і primusova mіgratsіya naselennya Skhіdnoї Galichini v roki Pershoї svіtovoї vіjni [Voluntary and Forced Migration of the Population of Eastern Galicia during World War I]. In Gіleya. Іstorichnі nauki. Fіlosofs’kі nauki. Polіtichnі nauki. Kiїv, Natsіonal’nii pedagogіchnii unіversitet іmenі M. P. Dragomanova. Iss. 19, pp. 10–16.

Liulevicius, V. G. (2000). War Land on the Eastern Front: Culture, National Identity, and German Occupation in World War I. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. 309 p.

Martin, T. (2001). The Affirmative Action Empire: Nations and Nationalism in the Soviet Union, 1923–1939. Ithaca, N. Y., Cornell Univ. Press. 528 p.

Martin, T. (2005). The Affirmative Action Empire; Timothy Snyder, Sketches from a Secret War: A Polish Artist’s Mission to Liberate Soviet Ukraine. N. Haven, Yale Univ. Press. 347 p.

Miller, A. I. (2003). The Ukrainian Question: The Russian Empire and Nationalism in the Nineteenth Century. Budapest: CEU Press. 295 p.

Miller, A. I. (2006). The Value and the Limits of a Comparative Approach in the History of Contiguous Empires on the European Periphery. In Imperiology: From Empirical Knowledge to Discussing the Russian Empire. Sapporo: Slavic Research Center at Hokkaido University, pp. 11–24.

Miller, A. I. (2008). The Romanov Empire and Nationalism: Essays in the Methodology of Historical Research. Budapest, CEU Press. 242 p.

Miller, A. I. (2014). The Romanov Empire and the Russian Nation. In Berger, S., Miller, A. (Eds.). Nationalizing Empires. Budapest, CEU Press, pp. 309–368.

Naumann, F. (1915). Mitteleuropa. Berlin, Reimer. 324 p.

Omel’yanchuk, I. V. (2007). Chernosotennoe dvizhenie v Rossiiskoi imperii (1901–1914) [The Black-Hundred Movement in the Russian Empire (1901–1914)]. Kiev, Mezhregional’naya Akademiya upravleniya personalom. 744 p.

Rieber, A. J. (2014). The Struggle for the Eurasian Borderlands : From the Rise of Early Modern Empires to the End of the First World War. Cambridge Univ. Press. 648 p.

Sanborn, J. (2000). The Mobilization of 1914 and the Question of the Russian Nation: A Reexamination. In Slavic Rev. Vol. 59. No. 2, pp. 267–289.

Sanborn, J. (2002). Drafting the Nation: Military Conscription, Total War, and Mass Politics, 1905–1925. DeKalb, Northern Illinois Univ. Press. 278 p.

Savenko, А. I. (1908). Zametki. Po povodu 100-letiya so dnya rozhdeniya Gogolya [Notes: On Gogol’s 100th Birthday]. In Kievlyanin. No. 320. P. 2.

Serdyuk, O. V. (2002). Bіzhenstvo v Ukraїnі pіd chas Pershoї svіtovoї vіjni [Retirement in Ukraine during World War I]. In Problemi іstorії Ukraїni XIX – pochatku XX st. Kiїv, Іnstitut іstorії Ukraїni. Iss. 4, pp. 111–132.

Seregny, S. J. (2000). Zemstvos, Peasants, and Citizenship: The Russian Adult Education Movement and the First World War. In Slavic Rev. Vol. 59. No. 2, pp. 290–315.

Skoropads’kii, P. (1995). Spogadi. Kіnets’ 1917 – gruden’ 1918 rr. [Memoirs. Late 1917 – December 1918]. Kiїv, Іnstitut ukraїns’koї arkheografії ta dzhereloznavstva іmenі M. S. Grushevs’kogo NАN Ukrainy. 493 p.

Smolin, M. B. (Eds.). (1998). Ukrainskii separatizm v Rossii: ideologiya natsional’nogo raskola [Ukrainian Separatism in Russia: The Ideology of the National Division]. Moscow, Moskva. 431 p.

Smolin, M. B. (Eds.). (2004). „Ukrainskaya” bolezn’ russkoi natsii [The “Ukrainian” Disease of the Russian Nation]. Moscow, Imperskaya traditsiya. 560 p.

Stepanov, S. А. (2005). Chernaya sotnya v Rossii: 1905–1914 gg. [The Black Hundred in Russia: 1905–1914]. Moscow, EKSMO, Yauza. 544 p.

Stepanov, А. D., Ivanov, А. А., Platonov, O. А. (Eds.). (2008). Chernaya sotnya. Istoricheskaya entsiklopediya 1900–1917 [The Black Hundreds. Historical Encyclopaedia 1900–1917]. Moscow, Institut russkoi tsivilizatsii. 640 p.

Struve, P. B. (1912). Obshcherusskaya kul’tura i ukrainskii partikulyarizm [All-Russian Culture and Ukrainian Particularism]. In Russkaya mysl’. No. 1, pp. 65–86.

Vavrik, V. R. (2001). Terezin i Talergof. K 50-letnei godovshchine tragedii galitskorusskogo naroda [Terezín and Thalerhof. For the 50th Anniversary of the Tragedy of the Galician-Russian People]. Moscow, SoftIzdat. 145 p.

Vujacic, V. (2007). Stalinism and Russian Nationalism: A Reconceptualization. In Post-Soviet Affairs. Vol. 23. No. 2, pp. 156–183.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15826/qr.2018.2.304

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN 2311-911X (Print)
ISSN 2313-6871 (Online)

 

BASE Search eLibrary WorldCat