The Russian Empire and the National Periphery: Between the Theory of Autocracy and Management Practices

Amiran Urushadze, Oleg Grom, Natalia Dmitrieva

Abstract


This article considers the relations between the Russian Empire and its national peripheries. The authors focus on the deformation of imperial principles of the organisation of power under the influence of the periphery instead of the traditional analysis of imperial methods of incorporating it. The work is based on documents from federal archives and published historical evidence and is structured around three main problems of the Romanov Empire, i. e. first, geography as a hard struggle with distances; second, politics as administrative practice; and third, economy as the price of the peripheries. The article defines the fundamental principle of Russian autocracy regarding the periphery as its desire for political and cultural integration of the periphery into the state. At the same time, the implementation of this principle forced the imperial authorities to seek other mechanisms to integrate outlying territories. The authors conclude that the experience of the Russian Empire demonstrates an inconsistency between state theory and practice. The periphery was not only an object of imperial policy, but also an agent in the development of the empire itself.


Keywords


Russian Empire; national outskirts; Romanovs; autocracy; imperial policy; geopolitics

References


Abashin, S. N. (2008). Razmyshleniya o “Tsentral’noi Azii v sostave Rossiiskoi imperii” [Reflections on “Central Asia as Part of the Russian Empire”]. In Ab Imperio. No. 4, pp. 456–470.

Aksenov, A. I., Vodarskii, Ya. E., Nikitin, N. I., Rogozhin, N. M. (Eds.). (2011). Rossiiskaya imperiya ot istokov do nachala XIX veka. Ocherki sotsial’no-politicheskoi i ekonomicheskoi istorii [The Russian Empire from its Origins to the Early 19th Century. Essays on Socio-political and Economic History]. Moscow, Russkaya panorama. 877 p.

Andreeva, T. V., Vibe, I. N., Milovidov, B. P., Shilov, D. N. (Eds). (2017). Zhurnaly Komiteta Zapadnykh gubernii [Journals of the Committee of the Western Provinces]. St Petersburg, Dmitrii Bulanin. Vol. 1. 1831–1835 gg. 848 p.

Anisimov, S. S. (1925). Voenno-Gruzinskaya doroga [Military-Georgian Road]. Moscow, Izdatel’stvo Vsesoyuznogo tsentral’nogo soveta professional’nykh soyuzov. 205 p.

Bartenev, P. I. (Ed.). (1892). Arkhiv knyazya Vorontsova v 40 kn. [The Archive of Prince Vorontsov. 40 Books]. Moscow, Universitetskaya tipografiya. Book 38. 536 p.

Bekasova, A. (2017). Dilizhansy na dorogakh Rossii XIX v.: ot zamysla – k praktike voploshcheniya [Stagecoaches on Russian Roads in the 19th Century: From Design to Production]. In Quaestio Rossica. Vol. 5. No. 1, pp. 32–55. DOI 10.15826/qr.2017.1.209.

Bergé, A. D. (Ed.). (1866). Akty, sobrannye Kavkazskoi Arkheograficheskoi komissiei v 12 t. [Acts Collected by the Caucasian Archaeographic Commission. 12 Vols.]. Tiflis, Tipografiya Glavnogo upravleniya namestnika kavkazskogo. Vol. 1. 816 p. Vol. 2. 1238 p.

Braudel, F. (2003). Sredizemnoe more i sredizemnomorskii mir v epokhu Filippa II. v 3 ch. [The Mediterranean Sea and the Mediterranean World in the Era of Philip II. 3 Parts]. Moscow, Yazyki slavyanskoi kul’tury. Part 2. Kollektivnye sud’by i universal’nye sdvigi. 806 p.

Broadberry, S., O’Rourke, K. (Eds.). (2013). Kembridzhskaya ekonomicheskaya istoriya Evropy Novogo i Noveishego vremeni v 2 t. [The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Europe. 2 Vols.] / transl. by Yu. Kapturevsky. Moscow, Izdatel’stvo Instituta Gaidara. Vol. 1. 1700–1870. 462 p.

Dameshek, L. M., Dameshek, I. L. (2015). Okrainy Rossiiskoi imperii: instituty i byurokratiya XIX – nachala XX veka [The Outskirts of the Russian Empire: Institutions and Bureaucracy of the 19th – Early 20th Centuries]. Irkutsk, Izdatel’stvo Irkutskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. 223 p.

Daniyalov, G. D. (Ed.). (1968). Istoriya Dagestana v 4 t. [The History of Dagestan. 4 Vols.]. Moscow, Nauka. Vol. 2. 368 p.

Esadze, S. S. (1907). Istoricheskaya zapiska ob upravlenii Kavkazom v 2 t. [A Historical Note on the Management of the Caucasus. 2 Vols.]. Tiflis, Tipografiya “Guttenberg”. Vol. 2. 310 p.

Etkind, A. M. (2013). Vnutrennyaya kolonizatsiya. Imperskii opyt Rossii [Internal Colonisation. The Imperial Experience of Russia]. Moscow, Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie. 441 p.

GARF [State Archive of the Russian Federation]. Stock 586. List 1. Dos. 242, 873; Stock 672. List 1. Dos. 301; Stock 678. List 1. Dos. 687.

Glebov, S. (Ed.). (2012). Region v istorii imperii. Istoricheskie esse o Sibiri [Region in the History of the Empire. Historical Essays on Siberia]. Moscow, Novoe izdatel’stvo. 294 p.

Golovin, K. F. (1910). Moi vospominaniya v 2 t. [My Memoirs. 2 Vols.]. St Petersburg, Tipografiya Tovarishchestva “Svet”. Vol. 2. 274 p.

Gordin, Ya. A., Milovidov, B. P. (Eds.). (2002). Kavkazskaya voina: istoki i nachalo: 1770–1820 gody [The Caucasian War: Origins and the Beginning: 1770–1820]. St Petersburg, Izdatel’stvo zhurnala “Zvezda”. 549 p.

Grosul, V. Ya. (1997). Sistema upravleniya Moldavii v sostave Rossii (XVIII – nachalo XX v.) [The System of Governance of Moldova as Part of Russia (18th – Early 20th Centuries)]. In Agadzhanov, S. G., Mukhamed’yarov, Sh. F., Trepavlov, V. V., et al. Natsional’nye okrainy Rossiiskoi imperii: stanovlenie i razvitie sistemy upravleniya. Moscow, Slavyanskii dialog, pp. 162–185.

Grosul, Ya. S., Budak, I. G. (1972). Ocherki istorii narodnogo khozyaistva Bessarabii (1861–1905) [Essays on the History of the National Economy of Bessarabia (1861–1905)]. Chisinau, Kartya Moldovenyaske. 603 p.

Jászi, O. (2011). Raspad Gabsburgskoi monarkhii [The Disintegration of the Habsburg Monarchy]. Moscow, Tri kvadrata. 607 p.

Kappeler, A. (2000). Rossiya – mnogonatsional’naya imperiya [Russia is a Multinational Empire]. Moscow, Progress – Traditsiya. 344 p.

Kasso, L. A. (1913). Rossiya na Dunae i obrazovanie Bessarabskoi oblasti [Russia on the Danube and the Formation of Bessarabian Region]. Moscow, Pechatnaya A. Snegirevoi. 230 p.

Knabe, G. S. (1991). Imperiya izzhivaet sebya, kogda okrainy dogonyayut tsentr [The Empire Outlives itself when the Outskirts Catch up with the Centre]. In Vostok. No. 4, pp. 76–83.

Korf, M. A. (2003). Zapiski [Memoirs]. Moscow, Zakharov. 719 p.

Kratkii istoricheskii ocherk razvitiya i deyate’nosti Vedomstva putei soobshcheniya za sto let ego sushchestvovaniya (1798–1898 gg.) [A Brief Historical Outline of the Development and Activity of the Department of Railways for a Hundred Years of its Existence (1798–1898)]. (1898). St Petersburg, Tipografiya Ministerstva putei soobshcheniya. 221 p.

Kushko, A., Taki, V., Grom, O. (2012). Bessarabiya v sostave Rossiiskoi imperii (1812–1917) [Bessarabia in the Russian Empire (1812–1917)]. Moscow, Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie. 392 p.

Letnyakov, D. E. (2017). Rets. na kn.: Alexei Miller, Stefan Berger (Eds.). Nationalizing Empires [Review of: Alexei Miller, Stefan Berger (Eds.). Nationalizing Empires]. In Antropologicheskii forum. No. 32, pp. 203–216.

Miller, A. I. (2000). “Ukrainskii vopros” v politike vlastei i russkom obshchestvennom mnenii (vtoraya polovina XIX v.) [“The Ukrainian Question” in the Policy of the Authorities and Russian Public Opinion (Second Half of the 19th Century)]. St Petersburg, Aleteiya. 267 p.

Miller, A., Berger, S. (Eds.). (2015). Nationalizing Empires. N. Y., CEU Press. 691 p.

Mironov, B. N. (2017). Upravlenie etnicheskim mnogoobraziem Rossiiskoi imperii [Managing the Ethnic Diversity of the Russian Empire]. St Petersburg, Dmitrii Bulanin. 638 p.

Narochnitskii, A. L. (Ed.). (1988). Istoriya narodov Severnogo Kavkaza (konets XVIII v. – 1917 g.) [The History of the Peoples of the Northern Caucasus (Late 18th Century – 1917)]. Moscow, Nauka. 659 p.

Nouele drumuri de fier în Basarabia. (1913). In Cuvânt Moldovenesc. Nr. 5, pp. 79–80.

OR RGB [Department of Manuscripts of the Russian State Library]. Stock 169. Box 19. Dos. 7.

Poștarencu, D. (2005). Contribuții la istoria modernă a Basarabiei. 2 Vols. Chișinău, Grafema-Libris. Vol. 1. 136 p.

Pravila ob otnosheniyakh Kavkazskogo namestnika [Rules for the Relations of the Caucasian Viceroy]. (1846). St Petersburg, Voennaya tipografiya. 11 p.

Pravilova, E. A. (2006). Finansy imperii: den’gi i vlast’ v politike Rossii na natsional’nykh okrainakh, 1801–1917 [Finances of the Empire: Money and Power in Russia’s Politics on the Periphery of the Nation, 1801–1917]. Moscow, Novoe izdatel’stvo. 453 p.

PSZRI-1 [The Complete Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire. First Collection]. Vol. 25. 674 p.

PSZRI-2 [The Complete Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire. Second Collection]. Vol. 32. 1066 p.

Reynolds, M. (2011). Shattering Empires: The Clash and Collapse of the Ottoman and Russian Empires, 1908–1918. Cambridge, N. Y., Cambridge Univ. Press. 303 p.

RGIA [Russian State Historical Archive]. Stock 561. List 1. Dos. 206; Stock 932. List 1. Dos. 321.

Said, E. (1994). Culture and Imperialism. N. Y., Vintage Books. 528 p.

Shoinbaev, T. Zh. (1973). Progressivnoe znachenie prisoedineniya Kazakhstana k Rossii [The Progressive Significance of Kazakhstan’s Joining to Russia]. Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan. 248 p.

Shubin, A. V. (2015). Istoriya Novorossii [The History of Novorossia]. Moscow, Olma Media Grupp. 476 p.

Sollogub, V. A. (1854). Fel’eton. Ivan Vasil’evich na Kavkaze [Feuilleton. Ivan Vasilyevich in the Caucasus]. In Kavkaz. No. 30. 21 April, pp. 447–449.

Taki, V. (2004). Istoricheskaya pamyat’ i konstruirovanie regiona posle prisoedineniya k imperii: osobaya forma pravleniya v Bessarabii v 1818–1828 gg. [Historical Memory and Construction of the Region after Joining the Empire: A Special Form of Government in Bessarabia in 1818–1828]. In Ab Imperio. No. 3, pp. 145–174.

Urusov, S. D. (1907). Ocherki proshlogo [Sketches of the Past]. Moscow, Tipografiya V. M. Sablina. Vol. 1. Zapiski gubernatora. Kishinev, 1903–1904. 377 p.

Vin’kovetskii, I. (2015). Russkaya Amerika: zaokeanskaya koloniya kontinental’noi imperii, 1804–1867 [Russian America: The Overseas Colony of Continental Empire, 1804–1867]. Moscow, Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie. 317 p.

Vyderzhki iz dnevnika D. A. Milyutina [Excerpts from the Diary of D. A. Milyutin]. (2018). In Peretts, E. A. Dnevnik (1880–1883) / ed. by A. A. Belykh. Moscow, Izdatel’skii dom “Delo” RANKhiGS, pp. 387–418.

Zhukov, V. I. (Ed.). (1987). Istoricheskoe znachenie prisoedineniya Bessarabii i Levoberezhnogo Podnestrov’ya k Rossii [The Historical Significance of Joining Bessarabia and the Left Bank of the Dniester Region to Russia]. Kishinev, Shtiintsa. 333 p.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15826/qr.2018.3.331

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN 2311-911X (Print)
ISSN 2313-6871 (Online)

 

BASE Search eLibrary WorldCat