Analyzing Domino Effects Occurring on Gasoline Storage Tanks at the Bulk Oil Storage and Transportation (BOST) Depot

G. A. K. MacCarthy, C. N. Asamoah, B. A. Ephraim, V. N. Alekhin, L. V. Poluyan


Since processed crude oil products are very vulnerable (susceptible) and highly flammable to cause massive catastrophes, such as fire and explosion, which are frequent and can create a chain reaction (Domino effects). This research was carried out at the Bulk Oil Storage and Transportation LTD depot on the Accra plain in Ghana where gasoline and Gasoil are stored. The research was conducted on a flammable gasoline area subjected to a vapor cloud explosion and the hazardous zone. Analyzing domino effects, propagation of a gasoline flammable vapor cloud caused by the explosion, ALOHA (Areal Location of Hazardous Atmospheres) software was used to find out how to apply effective safety measures to prevent future risks at any BOST facilities across the country. After the analysis, it was realized that 5.0 miles to the west-south-west the fuel concentration in the air was 2100 ppm lower than the explosive limit (LEL), and could not be as severe as that at 2.3 miles distance from the source point (12600 ppm LEL) with a greater fuel concentration in the atmosphere. The results made available would be useful in maximizing (improving) safety at the facility, residential area, and as well as minimizing future incidents.

Полный текст:



Yanlin J., Jang B.-S. Probabilistic fire risk analysis and structural safety assessment of FPSO topside module. Ocean Engineering, 2015, vol. 104, pp. 725–737.

Tsai S.-F., Huang A.-C., Shu C.-M. Integrated self-assessment module for fire rescue safety in a chemical plant — A case study. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 2018, vol. 51, pp. 137–149.

Orozco J. L., Van Caneghem J., Hens L., Gonzalez L., Lugo R., Diaz S., Pedroso I. Assessment of an ammonia incident in the industrial area of Matanzas. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2019, vol. 222, pp. 934–941.

Hui Sh., Guoning D. Risk quantitative calculation and ALOHA simulation on the leakage accident of natural gas power plant. Procedia Engineering, 2012, vol. 45, pp. 352–359.

Ghana gas explosion ‘kills five’ in Accra. Available at:‑38416186 (accessed 21.09.2019).

Khan F. I., Amyotte P. R. Modeling of BP Texas City refinery incident. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries. Elsevier, 2007, Vol. 20, pp. 387–395.

Rothermel R. C. Predicting Behavior and Size of crown Fires in the Northern Rocky Mountains. Res. Pap. INT‑438. Ogden, 1991. 46 p.

Rothermel R. C. A Mathematical Model for Predicting Fire Spread in Wildland Fuels. Res. Pap. INT‑115. Ogden, 1972. 40 p.

Van Wagner C. E. Conditions for the start and spread of crown fire. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 1977, vol. 7 (1), pp. 23–34.

Khakzad N., Dadashzadeh M., Reniers G. Quantitative assessment of wildfire risk in oil facilities. Journal of Environmental Management, 2018, vol. 223, pp. 433–443.

Khakzad N., Khan F., Amyotte P., Cozzani V. Domino effect analysis using bayesian networks. Risk Analysis, 2013, vol. 33 (2), pp. 292–306.

Reniers G. An external domino effects investment approach to improving cross-plant safety within. chemical clusters. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2010, vol. 177, pp. 167–174.

Abdolhamidzadeh B., Abbasi T., Rashtchian D., Abbasi S. A. Domino effect in process-industry accidents — an inventory of past events and the identification of some patterns. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 2011, vol. 24, pp. 725–737.

Kamil M. Z., Taleb-Berrouane M., Khan F., Ahmed S. Dynamic domino effect risk assessment using Petri-nets. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 2019, vol. 124, pp. 308–316.

Inanloo B., Tansel B. Explosion impacts during transport of hazardous cargo: GIS-based characterization of overpressure impacts and delineation of flammable zones for ammonia. Journal of Environmental Management, 2015, vol. 156, pp. 1–9.

Shah T. R., Tausif S., Sultana R. S. Facility layout optimization of on ammonia plant based on risk and economic analysis. Proceedia Engineering, 2014, vol. 90, pp. 760–765.

Renjith V. R., Madhu G. Individual and societal risk analysis and mapping of human vulnerability to chemical accidents in the vicinity of an industrial area. International Journal of applied engineering research, 2010, vol. 1 (1), pp. 135–148.

Energy commission act, 1997, Ghana, Africa, Western Africa. Available at: pdf (accessed 15.06.2019).

Ding L., Khan F., Abbassi R., Ji J. FSEM an approach to model contribution of synergistic effect of fires for domino effects. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 2019, vol. 189, pp. 271–278.

Khakzad N., Khan F., Amyotte P., Cozzani V. Domino effect analysis using bayesian networks. Risk Analysis, 2013, vol. 33 (2), pp. 292–306.

Alileche N., Olivier D., Estel L., Cozzani V. Analysis of domino effect in the process industry using the event tree method. Safety science, 2017, vol. 97, pp.10–19.

Cozzani V., Tugnoli A., Salzano E. Prevention of domino effect: From active and passive strategies to inherently safer design. Journal of hazardous materials, 2007, vol. A139 (2), pp. 209–219.

Khan F. I., Abbasi S. A. Major accidents in process industries and an analysis of causes and consequences. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 1999, vol. 12 (5), pp. 361–378.

Khan F. I., Abbasi S. A. An assessment of the likelihood of occurrence, and the damage potential of domino effect (chain of accidents) in a typical cluster of industries. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 2001, vol. 14 (4), pp. 283–306.

ALOHA software program. Available at: https://www. (accessed 15.06.2019).

Tsai S.-F., Huang A.-C., Shu C.-M. Integrated selfassessment module for fire rescue safety in a chemical plant — A case study. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 2018, vol. 51, pp. 137–149.

Tepperman J. Chevron Management Failures Led to Massive August 2012 Explosion in Richmond. East Bay Express, 2015. Available at: https://www.eastbayexpress. com/SevenDays/archives/2015/01/29/chevron-managementfailures-led-to-massive-august‑2012‑explosion-in-richmond (accessed 17.06.2019).

Stashevskiy O. Deadly Kiev fuel blasts set off blaze near military unit. The Straits Times, 2015. Available at: https://www.‑073358348.html (accessed 17.06.2019).

Rosli I., Adrian D. One injured as massive Kemaman refinery blaze continues to rage [NSTTV]. New Straits Time, 2018. Available at: (accessed 18.06.2019).

Reuters Staff. Texas petrochemical fire spreads to more storage tanks after firefighting snag. Reuters, 2019. Available at: (accessed 20.06.2019).

Mervosh S. Philadelphia Oil Refinery Explosion Shakes City With Huge Fireball. The New York Times, 2019.

Available at: (accessed 23.06.2019).

Xu C., Tarko A. P., Wang W., Liu P. Predicting crash likelihood and severity on freeways with real-time loop detector data. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 2013, vol. 57, pp. 30–39.

Mohsin M., Zhou P., Iqbal N., Shah S. A. Assessing oil supply security of South Asia. Energy, 2018, vol. 155, pp. 438–447.

Bahr N. J. System safety engineering and risk assessment: a practical approach. CRC press, 2018. 444 p.

Wind rose Tema, Greater Accra Region, Ghana, 5.670° N 0.017° W, 27 m asl. Available at: (accessed 02.07.2019).

Uijt de Haag P. A. M., Ale B. J. M. Guidelines for Quantitative Risk Assessment. Purple Book. CPR 18E. Hague, 2005.

Antonioni G., Spadoni G., Cozzani V. Application of domino effect quantitative risk assessment to an extended industrial area. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 2009, vol. 22 (5), pp. 614–624.

Yaofang F., Shuzhe C., Jing C. Research on virtual reality simulation system of safe navigation environment in Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 2011, vol. 10, pp. 331–336.

Taghehbaf M. A., Givehchi S., Ardestani M., Baghvand A. Modeling the Consequences of Potential Accidents in One of the Gasoline Storage Tanks at Oil Storage of Yazd, in Terms of Explosion. International Journal of Engineering Innovation & Research, 2014, vol. 3 (4), pp. 557–559.

Kardell L., Loof M. QRA with respect to domino effects and property damage. Report 5461. Lund, 2014. 92 p.

Reniers G. L., Dullaert W. DomPrevPlanningc: Userfriendly software for planning domino effects prevention. Safety Science, 2007, vol. 45 (10), pp. 1060–1081.

Cozzani V., Antonioni G., Landucci G., Tugnoli A., Bonvicini S., Spadoni G. Quantitative assessment of domino and NaTech scenarios in complex industrial areas. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 2014, vol. 28, pp. 10–22.

FLACS Software. Available at: http://www.gexcon. com/products-services/FLACS-Software/22/en (accessed 15.10.2019).

PHAST and SAFETI — DNV GL Software program. Available at:‑1715 (accessed 15.10.2019).

TOXI+Risk Software program. Available at:‑5 (accessed 15.10.2019).


  • На текущий момент ссылки отсутствуют.