Cover Image

Physical and Chemical Characterization of Drag Reducing Polymer Based on Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in Human Blood Flow

Akram Jassim Jawad, Auda J. Braihi


A new attempt to use Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a bio-drag reducing polymer agent for human blood flow has been studied. PVP was added at 0, 500, 750 and 1000 part per million (ppm) and mixed with human blood at room temperature for 2 minutes. Then, a cone on plate rheometer was used to investigate the effectiveness of PVP agent on blood rheological properties. The results showed significant effecting of PVP on blood fluidity characteristics, where the viscosity decreased as the PVP content increased or as a shear rate increased. For a certain shear rate, the shear stress decreased as PVP content increased. These changes will lead to increased mixing efficiency within the capillaries, increased oxygen transportation, increased tissue perfusion, modified red blood cells (RBCs) distribution, reduced pressure drop gradients, enhanced turbulent flow tendency, enhanced viscoelasticity nature of the blood and its strengthened non-Newtonian pattern. Also, the results showed that the viscosity-shear stress relationships become more linear at higher PVP concentrations. PVP addition caused no shifting in UV-absorbing positions and only moderate intensity changing. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) parameters provide other indicators about the role of PVP as a drag reduction agent for blood flow, where all of the amplitude, hybrid and special parameters decreased significantly.


Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP); Blood flow; Biorheology; Drag reducing polymers (DRPs); Cone on plate; Atomic force microscopy

Full Text:



Marhefka JN, Kameneva MV. Natural drag-reducing polymers: Discovery, characterization and potential clinical applications. Fluids. 2016;1(2):6. doi:10.3390/fluids1020006

Holzner M. Polymers Reduce Drag More than Expected. Physics. 2018;11:29. doi:10.1103/Physics.11.29

Gannushkina IV, Grigoryan SS, Kameneva MV, Shakhnazarov AA. The possibility that after circulatory ischemia of the brain the blood circulation can be restored by introducing special polymers into the blood. Soviet Physics Doklady. 1981;26:376.

Kameneva MV. Microrheological effects of drag-reducing polymers in vitro and in vivo. International Journal of Engineering Science. 2012 Oct 1;59:168-83. doi:10.1016/j.ijengsci.2012.03.014

Kameneva MV, Wu ZJ, Uraysh A, Repko B, Litwak KN, Billiar TR, Fink MP, Simmons RL, Griffith BP, Borovetz HS. Blood soluble dragā€reducing polymers prevent lethality from hemorrhagic shock in acute animal experiments. Biorheology. 2004;41(1):53-64.

Yousif Z. Drag reduction study of xathan gum with polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDAC) solutions in turbulent flow. Engineering and Technology Journal. 2018;36:891-9. doi:10.30684/etj.336.8A.8

Golub AS, Grigoryan SS, Kameneva MV, Malkina NA, Shoshenko KA. Influence of polyethylene oxide on the capillary blood flow in diabetic rats. Soviet Physics Doklady. 1987;32:620.

Polimeni PI, Ottenbreit BT. Hemodynamic effects of a poly (ethylene oxide) drag-reducing polymer, Polyox WSR N-60K, in the open-chest rat. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1989;14(3):374-80. doi:10.1097/00005344-198909000-00004

Braihi AJ, Rashid FL, Jawad AJ. Investigation of flow behavior characteristics for Iraqi crude oil with different polymeric additives. J Mech Eng Res Dev. 2020;43(4):41-9.

Grigoryan SS, Kameneva MV, Shakhnazarov AA. Effect of high molecular weight compounds dissolved in blood on hemodynamics. Soviet Physics Doklady. 1976;21:702.

Gannushkina IV, Antelava AL, Baranchikova MV. Suppression of experimental alimentary atherosclerosis with drag reducing polymers. Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine. 1993 Oct;116(4):1219-22. doi:10.1007/BF00802836

Mostardi RA, Greene HL, Nokes RF, Thomas LC, Lue T. The effect of drag reducing agents on stenotic flow disturbances in dogs. Biorheology. 1976;13(2):137-41. doi:10.3233/bir-1976-13208

Faruqui FI, Otten MD, Polimeni PI. Protection against atherogenesis with the polymer drag-reducing agent Separan AP-30. Circulation. 1987;75(3):627-35. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.75.3.627

Fischer F, Bauer S. Polyvinylpyrrolidon. Ein tausendsassa in der chemie. Chemie in unserer Zeit. 2009;43(6):376-83. German. doi:10.1002/ciuz.200900492

Rashid FL, Braihi AJ, Hashim A, Jawad AJ. Drag Reduction of Iraqi Crude Oil Flow in Pipelines by Polymeric Additives. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology. 2018;9(13):1049-60.

Jawad AJ, Jassim AE, Hadi NJ. Flow behavior of poly (vinyl alcohol)/aluminum oxide nanoparticles solutions as novel method to control the viscosity. Pakistan Journal of Medical & Health Sciences. 2020;14(4):1550-8.

Jawad AJ, Jassim AE, Hadi NJ. Effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) on rheological characteristics behavior of poly vinyl acetate (PVAc). NanoWorld Journal. 2020;6(3):61-5. doi:10.17756/nwj.2020-080

Boyle BM, Heinz O, Miyake GM, Ding Y. Impact of the pendant group on the chain conformation and bulk properties of norbornene imide-based polymers. Macromolecules. 2019 Apr 29;52(9):3426-34. doi:10.1021/acs.macromol.9b00020

Pribush A, Hatzkelzon L, Meyerstein D, Meyerstein N. The mechanism of the polymer-induced drag reduction in blood. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces. 2013 Mar 1;103:354-9. doi:10.1016/j.colsurfb.2012.11.004

Marhefka JN, Zhao R, Wu ZJ, Velankar SS, Antaki JF, Kameneva MV. Drag reducing polymers improve tissue perfusion via modification of the RBC traffic in microvessels. Biorheology. 2009;46(4):281-92. doi:10.3233/BIR-2009-0543

Ushasree UV, Jaleeli KA, Ahmad A. Study on infrared spectroscopy of human blood. Int J Sci Environ Technol. 2006;5:1189-92.

Aziz SB, Brza MA, Nofal MM, Abdulwahid RT, Hussen SA, Hussein AM, Karim WO. A comprehensive review on optical properties of polymer electrolytes and composites. Materials. 2020;13(17):3675. doi:10.3390/ma13173675


Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Copyright (c) 2021 Akram Jawad, Auda Braihi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Scopus logo WorldCat logo DOAJ logo CAS logo BASE logo eLibrary logo

Chimica Techno Acta, 2014-2023
ISSN 2411-1414 (Online)
Copyright Notice