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Kinetics of solid-state oxidation of iron, copper and zinc sulfide mixture

Alexander M. Klyushnikov, Sergey M. Pikalov, Roza I. Gulyaeva


The kinetics of solid-state oxidation by air of iron, copper and zinc sulfide natural mixture, which is typical of the pyritic copper ores, is investigated. Using the high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, it was found that the process can be represented by five exothermic elementary reactions, corresponding to intensive burning of iron, copper and zinc sulfides, and two endothermic ones, associated with decomposition of copper and iron sulfates. Kinetic analysis is performed by Kissinger and Augis–Bennett methods, the model-free function mechanism was determined from y(α) master plots and iterative optimization of the kinetic parameters. The limiting steps of these reactions are nucleation and crystal growth, and the values of activation energy, pre-exponential factor and Avrami exponent are in the ranges of 140–459 kJ·mol–1, 1.41·104–3.49·1031 s–1, and 1.0–1.7, respectively. Crystallization is followed by an increase in the number of nuclei, which may be formed both at the interface and in the bulk of the ore particles, and crystal growth is one-dimensional and controlled by a chemical reaction at the phase boundary or diffusion. The results of the work can contribute to the development of theoretical ideas about the physicochemical transformations of pyritic ores and concentrates during pyrometallurgical operations.


iron sulfide; copper sulfide; zinc sulfide; pyritic copper ore; oxidation; kinetics

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