Cluster analysis of Russian oil companies based on tax burden parameters

Irina V. Filimonova, Irina V. Provornaya, Svetlana I. Shumilova, Ekaterina A. Zemnukhova


The oil industry occupies an important place in Russian economy and in the global energy supply system. The industry has recently been facing a number of internal and external problems, for example, the deteriorating quality and structure of the product base and an increase in the share of tight oil reserves. Confronting these challenges will inevitably incur costs, which will directly affect oil companies’ financial performance. The Russian government uses taxation to incentivize oil companies to improve their efficiency, which renders the question of tax burden particularly salient. This study aims to analyze the tax burden on the Russian oil industry in the period from 2010 to 2017 and to identify the key factors that shape the structure and dynamics of oil companies’ tax payments. The article provides an overview of Russian and international research literature on the problem of tax burden. The role of oil and gas revenues in the structure of the Russian federal budget is shown. The analysis demonstrates that there has been a steady decline in the tax burden on oil companies in recent years due to the changes in the method of calculating the mineral extraction tax and export duties as well as the expanding range of preferential categories of subsurface use objects. The factor analysis combined with quantitative analysis reveals the factors that determine the dynamics and structure of oil companies’ tax payments. The method of cluster analysis is applied in this study to compare the performance of Russian oil companies according to a set of tax burden parameters. The companies are divided into three clusters and specific recommendations are provided for each cluster. For example, Gazprom Neft and LUKOIL have a low tax burden and can be seen, therefore, as potential donors of tax revenues; Rosneft, Bashneft and Tatneft need to increase their efficiency through non-tax optimization; a suitable strategy for Surgutneftegaz, RussNeft, and Slavneft, in our view, would be to adjust the structure of their production activities to increase the share of the domestic crude oil market. Based on the results of the cluster analysis, the authors propose guidelines for reforming taxation of the oil industry and describe the main stages of this process.

For citation

Filimonova I. V., Provornaya I. V., Shumilova S. I., Zemnukhova E. A. Cluster analysis of Russian oil companies based on tax burden parameters. Journal of Tax Reform. 2019;5(1):42–56. DOI: 10.15826/jtr.2019.5.1.059

Article info

Received September 24, 2018; accepted March 20, 2019




oil industry, tax burden, tax maneuver, oil and gas revenues, cluster analysis


Pugachev A. A. Tax maneuver in the structure formation of the new tax system: possible parameters and assessment of prospects. Social’nye i gumanitarnye znanija. 2017;3(4):345–352. (In Russ.)
2. Pavlova N. T. The Russian oil and gas complex development: the problems and prospects of the tax and tariffs regulation. Biznes. Obrazovanie. Pravo. Vestnik Volgogradskogo instituta biznesa = Business. Education. Law. Bulletin of Volgograd Business Institute. 2013;(2):141–143. (In Russ.)
3. Solovyova I. A., Makasheva A. M. Improvement of the economic mechanism of state regulation of an oil and gas complex. Naukovedenie. 2015;7(2):1–19. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.15862/53EVN215
4. Nurtdinova G. A. The relationship of tax burden and prices for products of the oil and gas industry. Finansy i kredit = Finance and Credit. 2009;15(48):50–54. (In Russ.)
5. Yashina N. I., Ryabov A. A. The Study of the Tax Burden of the Subjects of the Russian Federation on the Basis of Budget-Forming Indicators. Izvestiya Uralskogo gosudarstvennogo ekonomicheskogo universiteta = Journal of the Ural State University of Economics. 2015;(6):23–32. (In Russ.)
6. Malkina M. Yu., Pavlinova O. V. Analysis of the level of profitability and risk of income as per tax on natural resources production from oil extraction in regions of the Russian federation. Finansovaya analitika: problemy i resheniya = Financial Analytics: Science and Experience. 2014;(34):32–42. (In Russ.)
7. Malkina M. Yu., Balakin R. V. Modeling the relationship of the level of tax burden and income tax revenue for the regions of the Russian Federation. Mezhdunarodnyi bukhgalterskii uchet = International Accounting. 2013;(44):41–49. (In Russ.)
8. Kuznetsova A. P. Comparative analysis of taxation in oil and gas industries in Russia. Vestnik Saratovskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta = Vestnik Saratov State Technical University. 2006;4(1):110–115. (In Russ.)
9. Nurtdinova G. A. The impact of tax burden on the financial and economic state of the subjects of the oil and gas complex of Russia. Finansy i kredit = Finance and Credit. 2010;(9):64–69. (In Russ.)
10. Zhavoronkova E. N. Analysis of taxation in the oil industry in the context of major Russian and foreign oil companies. Gosudarstvennoe upravlenie. Elektronnyi vestnik = E-journal. Public Administration. 2015;(50):23–46. (In Russ.)
11. Jacobs J. Mexico’s energy reforms to open oil industry race ahead. Petroleum Economist. 2014, 18 August. Available at:
12. Karagianni S., Pempetzoglou M., Saraidaris A. Tax burden distribution and GDP growth: Non-linear causality considerations in the USA. International Review of Economics and Finance. 2012;21(1):186–194. DOI: 10.1016/j.iref.2011.06.002
13. Datta А. The incidence of fuel taxation in India. Energy Economics. 2010;32(1):26–33. DOI: 10.1016/j.eneco.2009.10.007
14. Osmundsen P., Emhjellen M., Johnsen T., Kemp A., Riis C. Petroleum taxation contingent on counter-factual investment behaviour. The Energy Journal. 2015;36(Special Issue I):195–213. DOI: 10.5547/01956574.36.SI1.posm
15. Osmundsen P., Lovas K., Emhjellen M. Petroleum tax competition subject to capital rationing. CESifo Working Paper, No. 6390. 2017, March. Available at:
16. Wang C., Chen Y., Jin X. Research on the effect of international oil prices pass-through on China’s new energy market. Journal of Quantitative and Technical Economics. 2018;35(4):131–46.
17. Komori G. Russian oil industry. IEEJ Energy Journal. 2010;5(4).
18. Eder L. V., Filimonova I. V., Larionov V. G. Some specific features of fiscal policy in oil and gas industry. Problemy ekonomiki i upravleniya neftegazovym kompleksom = Problems of economics and management of the oil and gas complex. 2016;(6):13–22. (In Russ.)
19. Eder L. V., Filimonova I. V., Nemov V. Yu., Provornaya I. V. The oil industry of Russia. Overview of the results of 2017. Mineralnye resursy Rossii. Ekonomika i upravlenie = Mineral Recourses of Russia. Economics and Management. 2018;(4):53–62. (In Russ.)
20. Sharf I. V. Evolution of reproduction paradigm for hydrocarbon resource base. Zhurnal ekonomicheskoj teorii = Russian Journal of Economic Theory. 2018;15(2):325–334. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.31063/2073-6517/2018.15-2.16
21. Vlasova V. M., Ivanova N. A. Methods for determining the tax burden of the organization. Aktualnye problemy ekonomiki i upravleniya. 2016;(3):3–6. (In Russ.)
22. Nikulina O. M. The tax burden in Russia: the main approaches. Finansy i kredit = Finance and credit. 2016;(17):13–27. (In Russ.)
23. Fokin Yu. A., Kirova E. A. The tax burden: problems and solutions. Ekonomist = The economist. 2000;(10):52. (In Russ.)
24. Litvin M. I. The tax burden and economic interests of enterprises. Finansy = Finance. 1998;(5):55–59. (In Russ.)
25. Korostelkina I. A. Methodology for calculating the tax burden of economic entities. Nalogi i nalogooblozhenie = Taxes and Taxation. 2014;(32):41–51. (In Russ.)
26. Pasko O. F. Determination of the tax burden on the organization. Nalogovyi vestnik. 2009;(22):23–29. (In Russ.)
27. Malkina M. Yu., Pavlinova O. V. Factor analysis and assessment of the mineral extraction tax revenues from oil production in the Russian Federation and regions. Ekonomicheskii analiz: teoriya i praktika = Economic Analysis: Theory and Practice. 2015;(14):35–48. (In Russ.)
28. Ivanov Yu. N. Selected problems of index theory in international comparisons of GDP. Voprosy statistiki. 2016;(2):13–23. (In Russ.)
29. Sokolov M. M. Methodological aspects of the calculation of the tax burden in the Russian oil and gas companies. Ekonomika v promyshlennosti = Russian Journal of Industrial Economics. 2013;(3):3–11. (In Russ.)
30. Panskov V. G. The tax burden on the economy: a tax maneuver is needed. Ekonomika. Nalogi. Pravo = Economics, Taxes & Law. 2016;9(5):130–138. (In Russ.)
31. Rezvushkin S. V. The tax burden and the tax burden. Innovatsionnaya nauka = Innovation Science. 2016;(12-1):174–175. (In Russ.)
32. Maksimov O. G. Oil and gas: branch and taxes. Finansovaya analitika: problemy i resheniya = Financial Analytics: Science and Experience. 2008;(5):61–63. (In Russ.)
33. Filimonova I. V., Eder L. V., Provornaya I. V., Komarova A. V. Regularities of the exhaustion of oil and gas reserves in Russia and the forecast of their reproduction. Ekologicheskii vestnik Rossii. 2018;(4):1–9. (In Russ.)
34. Mkrtchian G. M., Eder L. V., Filimonova I. V. Effectiveness of Russian oil and gas companies in crisis. Management v Rossii i za rubezhom = Management in Russia and Abroad. 2016;(2):48–57. (In Russ.)


Copyright (c) 2019 Irina V. Filimonova, Irina V. Provornaya, Svetlana I. Shumilova, Ekaterina A. Zemnukhova

eLibrary logoeLibrary logo  DOAJ logo ERIH PLUS logo 

© Journal of Tax Reform : ISSN 2414-9497 (online), ISSN 2412-8872 (print)