Cluster policies of large cities in Russia and Kazakhstan

Irina D. Turgel, Larissa L. Bozhko, Veronika T. Pandzhiyeva


Relevance. Faced with globalization challenges, large modern cities need to develop their competitive advantages. One source of such advantages is clustering of urban economy. Questions dealing with cluster-based policies and classification of clusters operating on the regional and national levels have attracted much scholarly attention while there is still a research gap regarding urban cluster policies and comparison of city-based clusters.

Research objective. The purpose of this study is to analyze the legal framework of cluster policies in Russia and Kazakhstan and to describe the criteria for classification and comparison of city-based clusters.

Data and methods. The study used methods of systemic and comparative analysis, formalized methods of analysis of regulatory acts. The selected criteria are universal and can be used for cluster analysis in different countries. We considered strategies for socio-economic development of large cities in Russia and Kazakhstan from the official websites of city administrations as well as the regulatory acts of specific cities.  

Results.  In both countries, clusters play a significant role in the development strategies of territories. The Russian and Kazakh governments take similar measures to support cluster initiatives. The regulatory legal acts of both countries emphasize the allocation of subsidies and co-financing of regional programs and R&D in clusters. The process of cluster creation in Russia started later than in Kazakhstan but was also more intensive. A popular specialization for clusters in both countries is information technologies and communications, which corresponds to the goals set by the national governments.

Conclusions. In both countries, the number of clusters in large cities is increasing annually. Typically, clusters have 11-50 participants. In both countries, there are clusters of different specialization. Strategies for socio-economic development serve as the main documents for devising cluster policies of cities.

The practical significance of the study is that it proposes an approach to classification and comparison of clusters that can be used in further analysis and for identification of cluster policy priorities.


clusters, large cities, cluster policy, classification of clusters, Russia, Kazakhstan

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