The causal relationship between agricultural production, economic growth, and energy consumption in Ghana

Ernest Baba Ali, Valery P. Anufriev


Relevance.  Transition to a low-carbon economy in order to effectively and efficiently exploit the natural resource base of a country is a daunting task, especially for developing countries due to their over-reliance on climate factors. This study focuses on the case of Ghana and assesses the impact of several indicators – agricultural production, economic growth and energy consumption – on the environment.

Research objectives. The aim of the study is to describe the causal relationship between agriculture production, economic growth, energy consumption and environmental degradation.

Data and Methods.  Using time-series data from 1975 to 2014, the study employed the ARDL model to achieve its objectives.

Results. The empirical results from the bounds test provide evidence of a long-run association when the covariates are regressed on environmental degradation. The significance of the error correction term at 1% level of significance confirms this assertion. The result further shows that there is evidence of a unidirectional short-run Granger causality and a bidirectional Granger causality among the variables. There was, however, no evidence of Granger causality between economic growth, livestock production index, crop production index and environmental degradation.

Conclusion. It is recommended that policy makers should prioritize the adoption of environmentally friendly technologies both in the crop and livestock sub-sectors to ensure that while the food needs of citizens are met, environmental quality is not compromised. Moreover, it is important to ensure energy use efficiency in production.


environmental degradation; economic growth; agricultural productivity; energy consumption; ARDL tests

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