Connectivity of regional systems of consumer goods reproduction

Venera M. Timiryanova


Relevance. The question of how to achieve a more stable economic reproduction and how to expand it is of prime importance as reproduction determines the development of the whole economic system. Due to the constant economic transformations and the so-called 'networkization' of many processes, more research is needed into the spatial organization of reproduction, in particular the intraregional and interregional relationships between its elements.

Research objective. This study aims at showing the spatial connections between phases of reproduction on the regional and municipal levels.

Data and methods. The study relies on tools and methods of spatial econometric modelling, which includes calculations of univariate and bivariate global and local Moran's indices and diagrams of their dispersion. We constructed an adjacency matrix for Russian regions and municipalities.  Overall, our study uses the data on 2,337 municipalities in 84 Russian regions.

Results. It was found that the phase of consumption followed by the phases of distribution and exchange have the highest degree of connectivity. Spatial connectivity between the phases was the most pronounced in the case of retail trade and consumption and was much weaker in the case of wholesale trade and production. The analysis of the municipal-level data has revealed some previously undetected relationships between peripheral areas located near regional borders.

Conclusions. In this study, we consider reproduction as a spatially organized economic system with interconnected, territorially dependent phases. Such approach provides us with new insights into the ongoing processes in the national economic space.


reproduction, regional reproduction, connectivity of economic space, spatial analysis, regional economy

Full Text:



Adzhikova, А.S., Shkolnikova, N.N. (2016). The integration of regions and quality of economic space. Science Journal of Volgograd State University. Economics, 2 (35), 18–25. (In Russ.) Retrieved from

Aguilar-Retureta, J. (2016). Regional Income Distribution in Mexico: New Long-Term Evidence, 1895–2010. Economic History of Developing Regions, 31(2-3), 225–252. doi:10.1080/20780389.2016.1175298

Anselin, L. (2005). Exploring Spatial Data with GeoDa: A Workbook. Urbana. 51.

Anselin, L., Syabri, I., Smirnov, O. (2002). Visualizing Multivariate Spatial Correlation with Dynamically Linked Windows. Computing Science and Statistics, 22. Retrieved from

Beaudry, P., Green, D. A., & Sand, B. M. (2014). Spatial equilibrium with unemployment and wage bargaining: Theory and estimation. Journal of Urban Economics, 79, 2. DOI:10.1016/j.jue.2013.08.005.

Bryukhanova, V. B., Bartaeva, D. C. (2016). Methods of analysis of the regional spatial development. Ekonomika: vchera, segodnja, zavtra = Economy: yesterday, today, tomorrow, 6, 12A, 347-357. (In Russ.) Retrieved from

Buvaltseva, V.I., Sokolovsky, M.V. (2008). The unevenness of regional development: features of manifestation and directions of overcoming. Siberian Financial School, 3, 43-48. (In Russ.) Retrieved from

Demidova, O.А. (2014). Spatial-autoregressive model for the two groups of related regions (eastern and western parts of Russia). Applied Econometrics, 2 (34), 19-35. (In Russ.) Retrieved from

Di Berardino, C., D’Ingiullo, D., Sarra, A. (2017). Distributive trade and regional productivity growth. The Service Industries Journal, 37(13-14), 833–857. DOI:10.1080/02642069.2017.1359261

Díez-Minguela, A, Martinez-Galarraga, J., Tirado-Fabregat, D. A. (2018). Spatial Patterns of Regional Income Inequality Then and Now. Regional Inequality in Spain, 129–148. DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-96110-1_6

Fabregat, D., Tirado, A., Badia-Mirу, M. (2014). New Evidence on Regional Inequality in Iberia (1900–2000). Historical Methods: A Journal of Quantitative and Interdisciplinary History, 47, 180–89. DOI:10.1080/01615440.2014.955232

Fan, X., & Liu, H. (2020). Global supply chain shifting: A macro sense of production relocation based on multi-regional input-output table. Economic Modelling, 94, 672-680. DOI:10.1016/j.econmod.2020.02.009

Geary, R. (1954). The continiguity ratio and statistical mapping. The Incorporated Statistician, 5, 115 – 145. DOI: 10.2307/2986645.

Granberg, A.G. (2004). Fundamentals of the regional economy. 4th ed. Moscow: Publishing house of the Higher School of Economics. (In Russ.).

Hylton, P. J., Ross, C. L. (2017). Agglomeration economies’ influence on logistics clusters’ growth and competitiveness. Regional Studies, 52(3), 350–361. DOI:10.1080/00343404.2017.1327708

Khushi, S., Ahmad, S. R., Ashraf, A., & Imran, M. (2020). Spatially analyzing food consumption inequalities using GIS with disaggregated data from Punjab, Pakistan. Food Security. DOI:10.1007/s12571-020-01057-4

Kirillova, A.S., Kantor, O.G. (2010). Regional development and quality of an economic space. Region: Economics and Sociology, 3, 57–80. (In Russ.) Retrieved from

Kuzmina, N. L. Tonysheva, L.L. (2018). Spatial organization of the economic activity of the region: the essence, forms, transformation. Regionalnye problemy preobrazovanija ekonomiki = Regional problems of transforming the economy, 9, 118-126. (In Russ.) Retrieved from

Lolayekar, A. P., Mukhopadhyay, P. (2019). Spatial Dependence and Regional Income Convergence in India (1981–2010). GeoJournal, 84, 851–864. DOI:10.1007/s10708-018-9893-0

Moran, P. (1948). The interpretation of statistical maps. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B, 10, 243 - 251.

Morgoev, B.T. (2006). Parametritie Optimization of Asymmetrical Development of Russian Economic Sphere. Filosofija hozjajstva = Business philosophy, 3, 180–190. (In Russ.).

Oleynikova, I.N. (2004). The reproduction process in the regional economy: an innovative component and a management mechanism (structural aspect) (Ed. Yu.S. Kolesnikov). North Caucasus. Research institute econ. and social growth problems. state un-that. Rostov on the Don. (In Russ.). Retrieved from

Panina, T.M. (2007). Management of the spatial organization of capital in the socio-economic system (Doctoral dissertation). St. Petersburg. (In Russ.).

Plummer, L. A. (2009). Spatial Dependence in Entrepreneurship Research. Organizational Research Methods, 13(1), 146–175. DOI:10.1177/1094428109334199.

Polozhentseva, J. S. (2018). Quantitative assessment of the development level of interregional relationship of the economic space. Innovacionnaja jekonomika: perspektivy razvitija i sovershenstvovanija = Innovative economy: prospects for development and improvement, 3 (29), 116-128. (In Russ.) Retrieved from

Polyakova, A.G., Simarova, I.S. (2014). Substantiation of regional development taking into account the connection of economic space. Tyumen: Tyumen State Oil and Gas University. (In Russ.).

Polyakova, A.G., Simarova, I.S. (2014b). Region economical space and territory development: the evaluation of cohesion forces activity. Journal of Applied Economic Research = Bulletin of Ural Federal University. Series Economics and Management, 2, 48-60. (In Russ.) Retrieved from

Shniper, R.I., Voevoda, I.N., Guzner, S.S. (1986). Regional program and principles of its development: Issues of intersectoral interaction. Novosibirsk: Science. (In Russ.).

Tian, X., & Zhang, M. (2019). Research on Spatial Correlations and Influencing Factors of Logistics Industry Development Level. Sustainability, 11(5), 1356. DOI:10.3390/su11051356

Timiryanova, V., Grishin, K., Krasnoselskaya, D. (2020). Spatial Patterns of Production-Distribution-Consumption Cycle: The Specifics of Developing Russia. Economies, 8(4), 87. DOI: 10.3390/economies8040087

Timiryanova, V.M., Yusupov, K.N. (2019). Spatial and hierarchical aspects in the management of municipalities. Ufa: Aeterna. (In Russ.).

Volchkova, I.V., Danilova, M.N., Podoprigora, Yu.V., Seliverstov, A.A., Ufimtseva, E.V., Shadeiko, N.R.. (2016). Approaches to the assessment of coherence of social and economic space of agglomeration. Twelfth Fall Conference in Akademgorodok «Modern Issues of Economics and Sociology». Novosibirsk. (In Russ.) Retrieved from

Ye, X., Wei, Y. D. (2005). Geospatial Analysis of Regional Development in China: The Case of Zhejiang Province and the Wenzhou Model. Eurasian Geography and Economics, 46 (6), 445-464. Retrieved from

Zagitova, L.R. (2013). Transformation of regional economic space in modern Russia. Gorizonty ekonomiki = Economic horizons, 4 (9), 80–82. (In Russ.) Retrieved from

Zemtsov, S. P. , Baburin, V. L. (2016). Assessing the Potential of Economic-Geographical Position for Russian Regions. Ekonomika regiona = Economy of Region, 1, 117-138. (In Russ.).

Zubarevich, N. V. (2014). Economic imbalances in the development of Russian regions and municipalities: the scale, dynamics, and possibilities of reduction. Annual report of the Franco-Russian Analytical Center. Paris: Observo. (In Russ.) Retrieved from


Copyright (c) 2021 Venera M. Timiryanova