Reconsidering contemporary classifications of sanctions in the light of the Russia sanctions regime

Alexander A. Pobedin


Relevance In 2022, Russia has been facing unprecedented sanctions pressure, which has created a need to reconsider the established classifications of sanctions. As the new challenges arise, one has to deploy not only the current analytical resources but rely on the integrated conceptualization of earlier cases. 

Research objective. The study aims to describe and test methodology for analysis of sanctions regimes by using the current data on the sanctions against Russia.

Data and method. The study relies on the methods of case study and statistical analysis and uses the data provided by Rosstat, Central Bank of the Russian Federation,  Castellum.AI, UNCTAD.

Results. The study proposes a base model of sanctions which combines two dimensions – the areas of foreign economic activity impacted by the restrictions and the factors that determine the sanctions' influence on the target country. It is shown how the proposed model can be adjusted for the analysis of the Russia sanctions regime.

Conclusions. The sanctions put considerable pressure on Russia's economy because by the nature of their impact and scope they far exceed the scale of the restrictions that were previously applied to other countries. To withstand the sanctions pressure, a serious revision and reorganization of the country's foreign trade structure and domestic economic policy is necessary. 


sanctions, smart sanctions, classification of sanctions, sanctions against Russia, socio-economic development of Russia, international relations, foreign economic policy

Full Text:



Aalto, P., & Forsberg, T. (2016). The structuration of Russia’s geo-economy under economic sanctions. Asia Eur J, 14, 221–237. doi: 10.1007/s10308-015-0446-6

Akhunov, R.R., & Yangirov, A.V. (2021) Spatial-territorial factors of economic growth in the Russian Federation. R-economy, 7(1), 42–51. doi: 10.15826/recon.2021.7.1.004

Aksenov I. (2019). Usa and Western European sanctions policy with respect to Russia. Vestnik Universiteta, 10, 147-151. (In Russ.) doi: 10.26425/1816-4277-2019-10-147-151

Arkhipova V. V. (2017). Current Sanction Regime against Russia: Characteristics and Global Aspect. Mir novoj ekonomiki, 2, 13-19. (In Russ.)

Askari, H. (2003). Case studies of US economic sanctions: The Chinese, Cuban, and Iranian experience. Westport, Conn. [u.a.]: Praeger, 304.

Bandeira, Luiz. (2019). The World Disorder: US Hegemony, Proxy Wars, Terrorism and Humanitarian Catastrophes. Cham: Springer, 482. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-03204-3

Bozhechkova, A. V. et al. (2022). Current Account Balance in the First Quarter of 2022 Rose as Capital Outflow Reached Record High. Ekonomicheskoe razvitie Rossii, 29 (5), 9-12. (In Russ.)

Cortright, D., & Lepez G., eds. (2002). Smart Sanctions: Targeting Economic Statecraft. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 256.

Dmitrieva, N.I. (2015). Economic Sanctions as a Tool of Political Pressure. Public Administration. Gosudarstvennoe upravlenie. Elektronnyj vestni, 52, 120-143. (In Russ.)

Drezner, D. W. (2011). Sanctions Sometimes Smart: Targeted Sanctions in Theory and Practice. International Studies Review, 13, 96-108.

Ellis, E. (2021). The Ethics of Economic Sanctions: Why Just War Theory is Not the Answer. Res Publica 27, 409–426. doi: 10.1007/s11158-020-09483-z

Filipenko A., Bazhenova O., Stakanov R., & Chornodid I. (2020). Influence of Economic Sanctions: Empirical Evidence for Iran and Russia. Advances in Longitudinal Data Methods in Applied Economic Research: 2020 International Conference on Applied Economics (ICOAE). Springer Proceedings in Business and Economics. Cham: Springer, 345-356. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-63970-9_24

Filipenko, A., Bazhenova, O., & Stakanov, R. (2020). Economic sanctions: theory, policy, mechanisms. Baltic Journal of Economic Studies, 6(2), 69-80. doi: 10.30525/2256-0742/2020-6-2-69-80

Ghasseminejad, Saeed & Mohammad R. Jahan-Parvar (2020). The Impact of Financial Sanctions: The Case of Iran 2011-2016. International Finance Discussion Papers, 1281. doi: 10.17016/IFDP.2020.1281

Hasse R. (1978). Why economic sanctions always fail — the case of Rhodesia. Intereconomics, 13 (7/8), 194-199. doi: 10.1007/BF02929193

Hufbauer, G. C., Schott, J. J., Elliott, K. A., & Oegg, B. (2009). Economic Sanctions Reconsidered, The Peterson Institute For International Economics, 248.

Linetsky A.F. (2022). Foreign Trade Activity of Russia and Russian Regions in Current Geopolitical Conditions. Teoriya i praktika obshchestvennogo razvitiya, 5, 29–34. (In Russ.) doi: 10.24158/tipor.2022.5.4

Kapoguzov E.A., & Chupin R.I. (2022). «Sanctions 2022»: The impossibility and ban on regulation by the Russian state in a blow. Journal of Economic Regulation, 13(1), 67-74. doi: 10.17835/2078-5429.2022.13.1.067-074 (In Russ.)

Kirichenko E.V. (2015). Export Controls as the Means of U.S. Foreign Policy. USA & Canada Journal, 10, 40-52.

Klinova, M. V. (2019). Economic Sanctions of the West against Russia: Development of the Situation. Studies on Russian Economic Development. 30 (3), 355-364. doi: 10.1134/S1075700719030079

Mansfield, E. D. (1995). International Institutions and Economic Sanctions. World Politics, 47(4), 575–605. Retrieved from

Marossi, A. Z., & Bassett, M. R. (2015). Economic Sanctions under International Law: Unilateralism, Multilateralism, Legitimacy, and Consequences. The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press : Imprint: T.M.C. Asser Press, 249. doi: 10.1007/978-94-6265-051-0

Orlova N.V. (2014). Financial Sanctions against Russia: Influence on Economy and Economic Policy. Voprosy ekonomiki, 12, 54-66. (In Russ.) doi: 10.32609/0042-8736-2014-12-54-66

Peou S. (2019). Why ‘Smart’ Sanctions Still Cause Human Insecurity. Asian Journal of Peacebuilding, 7 (2), 265-285. doi: 10.18588/201911.00a092

Pobedin, A.A., Balynskaya, N.R., & Williams, D. (2021). Socio-economic consequences of the first and second waves of the pandemic in Russian regions. R-economy, 7(3), 146–157. doi: 10.15826/recon.2021.7.3.013

Pouris, A. (1992). Economic sanctions and R & D. Scientometrics, 25 (3), 415-424.

Ramaswamy S. (2022). The Threat of Financial Sanctions: What Safeguards Can Central Banks Build? China & World Economy, 30 (3), 22-41. doi: 10.1111/cwe.12417

Rosenberg, E., Drezner, D., Solomon-Strauss, J. & Goldman, Z. K. (2016). The New Tools of Economic Warfare. Retrieved from:

Smeets, M. (2018). Can economic sanctions be effective? Staff Working Paper ERSD-2018-03. Retrieved from: english/res_e/reser_e/ersd201803_e.pdf.

Smirnov, E.N. (2019). Scientific, methodological and practical aspects of the application of anti-Russian sanctions as an instrument of foreign policy. The Eurasian Scientific Journal, 5(11). Retrieved from: (In Russ.)

Thakur, R. (2006). The United Nations, Peace and Security: From Collective Security to the Responsibility to Protect. New York: Cambridge University Press, 406.

Tsounis, N., & Vlachvei, A. (2021). Advances in longitudinal data methods in applied economic research : 2020 international conference on applied economics (ICOAE). Cham: Springer, 562.

Vaganova O.V. (2022) “Russia and sanctions”, Research Result. Economic Research, 8(1), 4-11. (In Russ.) doi: 10.18413/2409-1634-2022-8-1-0-1

Voynikov V.V. (2015). EU Restrictive Measures Against Russia: their Legal Nature and Implementation Problems. Baltijskij region,1, 89-100. (In Russ.)

Zemlyansky D.Y. et al. (2022). Assessment of the Risks of Suspension of Foreign Companies' Operations for the Economy and Labour Markets of Russian Regions. Ekonomicheskoe razvitie Rossii, 29 (4), 4-14. (In Russ)


Copyright (c) 2022 Alexander A. Pobedin

Сertificate of registration media Эл № ФС77-80764 от 28.04.2021
Online ISSN 2412-0731