О времени и обстоятельствах возникновения ямской гоньбы в русских землях

Oleg Vladimirovich Semenov

Аннотация


В статье на основе широкого круга источников и литературы рассматривается начальный период истории ямской гоньбы в русских землях, продолжавшийся до реформ Избранной рады. С необходимой полнотой восстановлена картина функционирования организованной связи на протяжении нескольких столетий. Вместе с тем пересмотрен ряд утвердившихся в историографии выводов. Установлено время и выяснены причины зарождения ямской гоньбы, проанализированы внутренние и внешние факторы, влиявшие на процессы ее становления и развития (воздействие со стороны монгольской, китайской, римской и византийской систем связи). Показана важная роль правильных сношений в деле государственного строительства, а также для внешней политики страны. Отдельное внимание уделено мероприятиям Ивана III, в княжение которого организованное сообщение функционировало как сложившийся институт. Воссоздана внешняя сторона ямского строя: дано описание ямской службы и ямов, определен объем полномочий местных властей в вопросах устройства и поддержания станций, охарактеризованы должностные лица ямского управления (ямщики, дьячки, дворники), проведено сравнение между организованной и неорганизованной формами правительственной связи. Отмечено негативное воздействие правильных сношений на материальное положение трудового населения, вынужденного отправлять ямскую повинность в натуральной и денежной форме (уплачивать ямские деньги).

Ключевые слова


ямская гоньба; ям; ямщик; ямская повинность; ямские деньги; подводы; организованное сообщение; Иван III.

Полный текст:

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Литература


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15826/izv2.2016.1.009

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